Past Faculty Awards

Use the filters below to find awards made to CSU faculty members by Program, Campus, or Year. Go to Past S​tudent​ Awards​​​​. 


COAST Award Program





collapse Year And Program : 2023-24 Rapid Response Program ‎(3)

​Galápagos Coral Resilience: Assessing Survival during the 2023 El Niño

LoganCherylRapid Response Program2023-24
The 2023-24 projected El Niño event is expected to trigger mass coral bleaching around the world. Regions like the Galápagos Islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP), with an extended history of bleaching, provide a natural laboratory for understanding the long-term effects of repeat bleaching and the mechanisms of thermal tolerance. The upcoming El Niño has a 90% chance of inducing a level 2 bleaching event in the ETP in the next four months. The goal of this proposal is to investigate the mechanisms of coral thermal tolerance during this event. Our prior data, based on acute heat stress experiments, suggest that coral genotype and symbiont composition set thermal tolerance in Galápagos Pocilloporids. In collaboration with the Galápagos Reef Revival project, we will take advantage of an existing coral nursery to track the fate of individual corals and the mechanisms underlying their responses during a natural thermal stress event. Objective 1 will be to examine the genotype and symbiont/microbial community composition of 38 coral colonies located in the nursery prior to the El Niño (early July 2023). Objective 2 will be to outplant coral colonies at three locations and track their survival, bleaching status, growth, and symbiont/microbial communities four and nine months later. These data will enable us to model the role of phenotypic plasticity and genetics in setting thermal tolerance, and to validate the ability of acute thermal stress assays to predict responses in the field. By unraveling the mechanisms of thermal tolerance in this unique region, we will advance knowledge of coral thermal tolerance mechanisms in marginal habitats which may serve as analogs for future climate change conditions worldwide. In addition, the identification of thermally “tough” corals will help in ongoing restoration efforts across the Galápagos archipelago.​
Monterey Bay2023-24 Rapid Response Program

​Functional changes in albatross use of fisheries resources expected with a rapid switch of the La Niña/El Niño Southern Oscillation​​

ShafferScottRapid Response Program2023-24

​The Pacific Ocean is undergoing a dramatic swing from a prolonged La Niña event to El Niño conditions within the context of the highest global sea surface temperatures ever recorded. Globally, albatross populations are at risk due to bycatch from industrial fisheries. Although albatrosses are capable of profiting from fisheries discards and baits, this interaction can also lead to mortality from fisheries bycatch. Concomitantly, ENSO driven changes in wind fields are expected to alter foraging distributions and potentially increase encounters with fisheries operations. At Midway Atoll, in the Papahānaumokuākea​ Marine National Monument, black-footed (BFAL) and Laysan (LAAL) albatrosses nest sympatrically from December to June. When foraging during incubation, both species conduct prolonged trips (10,000 km, 2-3 weeks), which contrast with shorter trips after chicks hatch (1,500 km, 2-5 days). In the context of dramatically different basin scale environmental conditions (La Niña vs. El Niño), our study will first determine if vessel encounters change, then disentangle drivers of albatross attraction to vessels, and finally investigate factors influencing how albatrosses behave in proximity to vessels. Our objectives can be achieved by directly comparing data collected in two previous field efforts in La Niña conditions (Jan-Feb of 2022 & 2023) with another effort during El Niño conditions (Jan-Feb 2024). Specifically, this funding request will be used to cover travel and logistical costs for PI-Shaffer to conduct another field effort this winter during dramatically different oceanographic conditions. Tracking equipment and permits from prior efforts will support this third consecutive effort, so major costs are logistical that can be covered by this Rapid Response request. Data collected from the proposed effort will add to an existing body of research on albatrosses and other seabirds in the Northwest Hawaiians by the Shaffer Lab that spans over two decades and has resulted in 30+ peer-reviewed publications.​

San José$7,5002023-24 Rapid Response Program

​Relocation of feed mill to Cal Poly Humboldt

Cuevas UribeRafaelGrahamMichaelRapid Response Program2023-24

​Prepared feed for aquaculture represents 50% of the variable costs associated with an aquaculture operation. Feed is manufactured using a feed mill that produces extruded and expanded pellets. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML) has a feed mill that wants to donate to Cal Poly Humboldt. This feed mill will build research capacity at Humboldt. We could produce experimental diets, especially to replace fish meal and fish oils with seaweed or other alternative ingredients. This project is requesting funds to pay for the relocation of the feed mill from Moss Landing to Humboldt. This request is urgent because the feed mill is in a storage facility, and Moss Landing has to pay monthly to store this expensive instrument. Cal Poly Humboldt has the space to install this instrument.​

HumboldtSan José$2,5462023-24 Rapid Response Program
collapse Year And Program : 2022-23 State Science Information Needs Program ‎(1)
Ecophysiology of Olympia oysters grown in aquaculture, and implications for outplanting success
KahnAmandaState Science Information Needs Program2022-23
Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida) are the only native oyster species along the California coastline. Their populations have declined due to overharvest and habitat degradation. Recently, conservation aquaculture has been used in an attempt to replenish oyster numbers to sufficient amount to successfully reproduce in the wild. We will study the physiology of Olympia oysters grown in aquaculture to specifically optimize growing conditions for adult fitness and outplanting success for Elkhorn Slough. We will do this by measuring particle capture (energy uptake) and metabolic rates (energy expenditure) of early life stages of oysters in culture. We will also determine scope for growth of adult oysters when brooding embryos to determine whether that is a bottleneck leading to reproductive failure. Combined, these studies will help us identify whether the reproductive failures in Elkhorn Slough are caused by fertilization failure, developmental failure, the cost of brooding, or of growing from embryos to adults. Finally, we will assess how scope for growth of juvenile and mature oysters may change under current and future habitat conditions (temperature and turbidity) in Elkhorn Slough.​  Our work will focus on understanding the energetics and metabolism of captive reared Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida). Metabolic rates will be measured from three different life stages (free-swimming larvae, newly settled juveniles, and adults used as broodstock) using closed chamber respirometry. The most energetically expensive stages are likely "energetic bottlenecks" that could influence survival. We will also look at the balance of food energy taken up by adult oysters (as the amount of food eaten) and the amount of food energy spent on various processes (typified by respiration and excretion of urine and feces). The amount of energy left over after those costs have been spent is the 'scope for growth' and indicates the amount of energy available for oysters to grow and reproduce. With reproductive failures occurring in wild populations in Elkhorn Slough in recent years, it will be important to understand the scope for growth of oysters at different stages, especially during reproduction, to find out why these reproductive failures are occurring. Finally, we will manipulate food, temperature, and turbidity conditions to assess how Olympia oysters will fare in current and future habitat conditions in Elkhorn Slough. Captive rearing is a promising approach to mitigate the recent decline and reproductive failures of Ostrea lurida in Elkhorn Slough. Now that a proof-of- concept has demonstrated that these oysters can be reared, it is important to optimize the process. Clarifying the scope for growth of Olympia oysters at​ different stages and under different growth conditions will lead to greater survivorship, and will point to potential energetic bottlenecks at different life stages in captive reared and wild populations. This work will specifically and directly benefit restoration efforts to the Elkhorn Slough oyster population, but also to other groups doing small-scale conservation aquaculture. With restoration efforts underway up and down the west coast, the results of this research will be communicated to other stakeholders and participants in NOOC to be applied to their populations as well. More regions may consider adopting restorative aquaculture for their populations, and understanding which life stages are most sensitive will help in all restoration efforts. Results of our research will be of interest to commercial growers interested in adding Olympia oysters to their grower portfolio. Olympia oysters appear to be more resistant to acidification and suffer from fewer diseases than Crassostrea gigas. While they are more expensive to raise, O. lurida can be sold to a niche market, as is done with grass-fed beef or local organic produce. Certain consumers would be glad to pay more knowing that raising a native species could benefit wild populations due to larval spillover.
San José$29,9742022-23 State Science Information Needs Program
collapse Year And Program : 2022-23 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program ‎(1)
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography short c​ourse for COAST research enhancement

VozkaPetrShort Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program2022-23
A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) has become the state-of-the-art technique/instrument for analyzing complex (volatile or semi-volatile) samples and has emerged as a powerful separation tool for studying environmental samples, petroleum fractions, persistent organic pollutants, drugs, etc. The benefits include increased resolution and selectivity (compared to GC-MS), and structured two-dimensional chromatograms. Since most CSU campuses do not have GC×GC capability, their research is limited by not having all the GC×GC advantages. This free two-day Short Course aims to enhance COAST research projects. In this course, participants will gain hands-on experience and knowledge in GC×GC. They will be introduced to several GC×GC applications, mostly related to COAST. This short course will also promote collaboration between faculty and demonstrate GC×GC separation power on their samples. Faculty might implement GC×GC in their research laboratories to get more data from their samples or expand their research area. This short course supports COAST's objectives to equip CSU faculty and students with state-of-the-art techniques and deepen collaborations between CSU faculty.​

Los Angeles2022-23 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program
collapse Year And Program : 2022-23 Rapid Response Program ‎(2)
Characterizing primary production and nutrient uptake of a rare, widespread, and persistent bloom of Heterosigma akashiwo in the San Francisco Estuary​

ParkerAlexanderWilkersonFrancesDugdaleRichardRapid Response Program2022-23
This proposal seeks funds to measure rates of carbon and nitrogen uptake by a rare, widespread, and persistent harmful algal bloom (HAB) occurring the San Francisco Estuary. The bloom species, Heterosigma akashiwo, is a mixotrophic red-tide species known for producing episodic toxic blooms in high nutrient surface coastal waters. Last observed in the San Francisco Bay in 2002, the present H. akashiwo bloom was first detected in Central San Francisco Bay, near Alameda in late July. Since that time, the bloom has grown in algal density and geographic extent, extending down into South San Francisco Bay as well as north into the mesohaline San Pablo Bay. During late August reports of fish kills began and CA public health officials have recommended that people and pets avoid prolonged exposure to the Bay’s waters. While the mechanism that gave rise to the current bloom is yet to be determined, it is widely assumed that the persistence and geographic expansion of the bloom is driven in part to high inorganic nutrient concentrations) supplied via municipal wastewater treatment facilities. State and federal natural resource agencies have been monitoring the bloom’s progression but to date we are not aware of any measurements of algal primary production or nitrogen uptake. H. akashiwo has been shown to grow well on ammonium-N, nitrate-N and urea-N but shows better assimilative capacity for NH4. The objectives of this study are to measure dissolved inorganic nutrients and rates of primary production and nitrogen uptake (ammonium-N and nitrate-N) by the Heterosigma bloom from late August through September 2022. We hypothesize that the HAB was able to take advantage of elevated nutrient concentrations supplied through WWTP effluent to support bloom growth and expansion.
Maritime AcademySan FranciscoSan Francisco2022-23 Rapid Response Program
GoNORTH 2023: An expedition to the slowest spreading center on planet Earth​
PortnerRyanRapid Response Program2022-23
A recent invitation to join a Norwegian research expedition to the ice-covered Arctic Ocean in July 2023 presents an extraordinary opportunity to investigate one of the most difficult to reach mid-ocean ridges on the planet, the Gakkel Ridge. This ultra-slow spreading ridge exhibits unusual lava chemistry with high CO2 contents that are thought to have caused rare deep-marine explosive eruptions. Our understanding of the extent and nature of these eruption deposits is however limited to two ROV suction samples and bottom observations from a 2007 cruise. Devoted sediment coring programs that include follow-up physical and chemical analyses of volcanic ash is critical for developing models of deep-marine explosive eruptions, which are still poorly understood. The unusual lava chemistry and great depth of the Gakkel Ridge (~4850 mbsl) makes it an archetype setting for such study, since non-explosive ash generation by lava-water interaction is not possible below the critical point of seawater (>3000 mbsl). Samples collected by this project will characterize the extent of volcanic ash dispersal on the Gakkel Ridge, and identify any long-term trends in explosive eruption activity that may correspond with lava composition, hydrothermal venting and/or sea level fluctuations. The latter has been hotly debated in the literature, which posits that lower sea levels during glacial periods permit more extensive mantle decompression melting, hydrothermal venting and volcanism. Little research however has been done on the volcanic record along the mid-ocean ridge to test this hypothesis.​
San José2022-23 Rapid Response Program
collapse Year And Program : 2022-23 Grant Development Program ‎(5)
Brain neuroplasticity adaptations in the speckled sanddab induced by low oxygen availability in the local estuary the Elkhorn Slough​
De MiguelZurineGrant Development Program2022-23
Estuaries are highly productive and irreplaceable natural ecosystems that serve as nursery grounds for ecologically and commercially important fish species. The maintenance of this ecosystem is a highly dynamic process, regulated by multiple factors such as oxygen availability. Unfortunately, in the California estuaries, including the Elkhorn Slough, the frequency and intensity of hypoxic events, or low oxygen, has continued to increase over the years, and in some areas, fish live in constant hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia, is a type of environmental and physiological stressor that has been linked to impaired behavioral and physiological adaptations, increasing mortality and reproduction failure in fish. It is well known that the brain is a key organ that controls the behavioral and physiological adaptations to stressors. However, very little is known about how hypoxia affects the brain in wild species adapted to daily exposure of cycles of hypoxia in a natural environment. Here I propose to generate preliminary data to support the hypothesis that low oxygen levels can affect the brain structure and function of the speckled sanddab, a local fish found in the Elkhorn Slough. Preliminary data will strengthen my proposal and expand the number of grants that I can apply for. The overarching goal of my research is to elucidate the main brain mechanisms mediating the physiological and behavioral adaptations to hypoxia and to develop early health indicators associated with hypoxia. Future studies aim to map the molecular networks responding to hypoxia. The knowledge gained from these studies will 1) enhance our understanding of the response of fish to hypoxia, 2) help to inform the rational design of new mechanistic studies and 3) inform the state agencies who manage groundfish and nearshore stocks.​
Monterey Bay2022-23 Grant Development Program
Building a CSU network to monitor Pismo clam recovery​
HauptAlisonRuttenbergBenZacherlDanielleGrant Development Program2022-23
The CSU system spans the coast of California and is primed to support cohesive monitoring of important coastal resources. We propose to lay the groundwork to create a CSU network to monitor the iconic and once-abundant Pismo clam. Our network will start with three CSU campuses: CSUMB, Cal Poly SLO, and CSUF. Understanding the status of populations of fishery species is challenging, yet critical to managing them effectively. These challenges are even greater for recreational fisheries that are often small-scale, diverse, and data poor. Diverse species and diffuse fishing activity make it difficult to enforce regulations, further complicating management. Rarer still are instances of rapid recovery of recreational fishery species, making critical to understand the status and potential drivers of the apparent rapid increase in Pismo clam populations along the Central Coast. The Ruttenberg lab at Cal Poly SLO initiated a monitoring program for Pismo clams in San Luis Obispo County, CA in 2015. This project will allow us to expand this monitoring program to Monterey Bay (PI Haupt) and Southern California (PI Zacherl). This work will lay the groundwork for a future larger grant through NSF BIO OCE, COPE, NOAA Sea Grant, or NOAA Saltonstall-Kennedy to expand the spatial extent of the monitoring program and the scientific scope to include genetic components to examine genetic diversity, past bottlenecks, effective population size, dispersal patterns of Pismo clams, as well as community science and recreational fisheries management. PI Ruttenberg’s program is ongoing and has sufficient funding to continue. This grant will allow Haupt and Zacherl to purchase needed supplies and fund four students each to initiate a statewide monitoring program of Pismo clams. This project is an excellent project for CSU students because it can engage students at all levels from entry-level research experience to honors capstone projects.​
Monterey BaySan Luis ObispoFullerton2022-23 Grant Development Program
Dynamics of ocean predator range shifts: species interactions, conflicts and recoveries​
JorgensenSalvadorGrant Development Program2022-23
In response to ocean warming, marine species are shifting their geographic range poleward, resulting in novel occurrences and combinations of species. In the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), where numerous taxa are experiencing range shifts, the thermal gradient is patchy rather than smooth. Preliminary data suggest shifted species, including predators, are concentrating in warm patches at the cold edge of their shifting range. Following the 2014 Eastern Pacific marine heat wave, my research has documented a climate-driven 280km northward range shift among juvenile white sharks, resulting in a novel concentration of the predators in the warmest corner of Monterey Bay. The resulting increase in white shark density into the southern sea otters¶ present-day core range threatens the recovery of this protected keystone mammal and demonstrates complex ecological interactions mediated by ocean warming that remain poorly understood. Building on tagging, remote sensing, and survey data generated from my recent work, this project will provide new insights into climate effects on marine communities and on the current and anticipated distribution of white sharks in relation to southern sea otter recovery. Specifically I will engage CSUMB graduate and undergraduate students in research to elucidate how regional warming and local oceanography drive the patchy distribution of juvenile white sharks in relation to sea otters and the kelp canopy that shelters them. The project will result in a better ecological understanding of climate driven species interactions and provide concrete recommendations for otter reintroduction efforts under consideration by partners at USFWS and other supporting NGOs. The proposed COAST Grant DHYHORSPHQW PURJUaP (GDP) μVHHG¶ IXQGLQJ ZLOO SURYLGH a PHaQV WR HQJaJH CSU XQGHUJUaGXaWH aQG MaVWHU¶V VWXGHQWV LQ ILHOG ZRUN and data collection/analysis, while providing a foundation of preliminary data to strengthen longer-term funding proposals.​
Monterey Bay2022-23 Grant Development Program
Filter Modified with Nanostructured Superhydrophilic and Superoleophobic Coating for Efficient Oil/Seawater Separation​
LiMinghengGrant Development Program2022-23
To mitigate the damage of oil spills frequently occur in ocean, a filter modified with a super-hydrophilic and super-oleophobic coating is proposed for affordable and efficient oil separation and recovery from seawater. When being dragged through the water, the filters collect the surface oil while allowing seawater to go through easily by gravity. The proposed research activities include deposition of nanostructured TiO2 coating on filters, characterization and optimization of filter properties, filtration testing, and prototype design via 3D printing. A video demo of our preliminary studies has been uploaded to YouTube:
Pomona2022-23 Grant Development Program
Degradation and Fragmentation of Marine Debris in Urban Coastal Watersheds​
MladenovNatalieGrant Development Program2022-23
Urban coastal watersheds and the rivers that drain them are a major source of marine debris and microplastics (MPs) to the coastal environment, and dire consequences for marine organisms have been documented from this constant flux of MPs from urban watersheds. This COAST GDP proposal seeks to collect preliminary data to 1) further hone key research questions that explore fundamental science and transformative concepts, 2) identify key collaborators with complimentary expertise, and 3) demonstrate likelihood of success as well as pitfalls in the experimental setup and analytical approaches for a future proposal to NSF that evaluates the fragmentation and degradation of marine debris in coastal urban environments.​
San Diego2022-23 Grant Development Program
collapse Year And Program : 2021-22 State Science Information Needs Program ‎(3)
Assessing current biological and physical status of California’s artificial reefs with comparisons​​ to natural reefs to improve compensatory mitigation outcomes​
ClaisseJeremyState Science Information Needs Program2021-22
Scientific Summary: 
During the past decade two large quarry rock artificial reef (AR) complexes have been built in California for compensatory mitigation and habitat restoration. Along with increased demand to use ARs for these purposes, moving forward AR habitat issues will continue to gain importance due to the introduction of new artificial habitat from offshore renewable energy structures and sea level rise adaptation infrastructure, and the imminent decommissioning of petroleum platforms and oil islands which may remove habitat. The CDFW is currently in the process of updating their AR management plan and would benefit from a systematic effort that evaluates the status and productivity of existing ARs constructed decades ago. The proposed project will directly address SSINP RFP Research Objective 2.1: Improving understanding of restoration practices to improve compensatory mitigation outcomes - Artificial reefs. The project will quantify physical attributes of existing ARs by collecting and analyzing geophysical data (i.e., bathymetry and acoustic backscatter) and assess their current status relative to historical descriptions. Biological metrics of ecological function (e.g., species richness, density, biomass, size structure, production, reproductive output) will also be quantified using the same comprehensive rocky reef SCUBA survey methods currently being used for statewide MPA monitoring. ARs will be selected for inclusion in the study in consultation with California state agency representatives based on total State and Federal funding available, initially focusing on ARs built from quarry rock, as it is the primary construction material likely to be used for future AR projects in California. Data analyses will compare community composition and ecological function metrics among artificial and representative natural reefs, and determine which habitat structure, environmental, and anthropogenic factors best explain patterns in biological metrics onAR modules. Results will then be applied to develop ecological function assessment metrics and design criteria for future AR projects.

Plain Language Summary:
The California Natural Resources Agency is receiving increased calls for the construction of artificial reefs in our coastal ocean for habitat restoration and compensatory mitigation purposes to offset the negative impacts from other activities (e.g., fishing, dredging, coastal development, wastewater discharge). The California Department of Fish and Wildlife is currently in the process of updating their artificial reef management plan and therefore it is an ideal time to understand how existing artificial reefs built decades ago to enhance fishing opportunities are doing. The proposed project will collect and analyze data from the existing artificial reefs built primarily from quarry rock to assess the current quality of the physical habitat structure including whether they have sunk into and been covered by sediment over the years. We will use the same methods currently used to survey the fish, invertebrates and algae on natural rocky reefs for the State’s Marine Protected Area assessment to determine how these artificial reefs are currently functioning biologically. Research results will be used to develop best practices for the design and construction of future projects that add artificial reef habitat along the California coast for habitat restoration, compensatory mitigation or potentially to protect coastlines from sea level rise.

Pomona2021-22 State Science Information Needs Program
Improved Mitigation Frameworks: Guidance for Improved Restoration Efficacy Across ​​California’s Coastal Zone​​
AndersonSeanState Science Information Needs Program2021-22
Scientific Summary:
Already common coastal stressors are growing in intensity and magnitude thanks to extant development pressures and the unfolding climate crisis. As we draw closer to exhausting remnant nearby candidate mitigation locations (i.e. potential coastal salt marsh restoration sites) and evermore chronic disturbance pushes systems toward alternative stable states (e.g. beachless coastlines at high tide), most official mitigation guidance remains exclusively bound to replicating historic conditions. As a consequence, when regulators are faced with increasingly common situations where in-kind and on-site mitigation are impractical or impossible, they are left rudderless and authorize out-of-kind or off-site mitigation haphazardly. We seek to rectify this management gap by providing well-articulated guidance for when and how to implement out-of-kind or off-site mitigation when in-kind or on-site are not realistic (or desired).

As seasoned professionals of numerous traditional working groups and science advisory panels, we recognize both the benefits best professional judgment can bring to difficult management challenges and the limitations inherent in most unstaffed, minimally funded efforts. We propose a series of phased working groups wherein the experience and insights of diverse experts will be augmented and tested with meta-analyses of literature and performance data compiled by our technical support staff.

Working group Phase 1 will produce general guidance applicable in all or most settings (community-independent) emphasizing ecological functioning as a common currency. Phase 2 will apply that guidance to discrete case studies as tailored recommendations for specific communities of acute restoration concern (kelp reefs, oyster beds, etc.). Phase 3 will apply our guidance to larger, regional-scale case studies (reduced fish productivity under marine heat waves, etc.). A final Phase 4 will synthesize all previous work. Our efforts will produce conceptual as well as situation-specific guidance to restoration professionals and coastal regulators.

Plain Language Summary:
California’s coastal ecosystems are being stressed and damaged at an increasing rate thanks to existing pressures and our unfolding climate crisis. While the ideal response to injury is to restore the identical habitat at the original location, that isn’t always possible (e.g. if sea level rise eliminates a sandy beach). In these circumstances we mitigate off-site (e.g. down coast) or with out-of-kind approaches (e.g. reducing predators to boost bird abundance). Unfortunately, most existing policies counsel on-
site and in-kind mitigation exclusively, leaving agencies rudderless when circumstances make preferred mitigation impossible. We propose to create guidance for how/when to conduct out-of-kind and off-site mitigation by convening a series of well-funded working groups with a range of experts. Funding will allow us to 1) bring voices traditionally not involved in such discussions together with seasoned practitioners and 2) undergird our efforts with extensive compilation and analyses of existing literature and of data compiled from historic and extant mitigations. Both of these dimensions have been historically absent from traditional, short-term, and minimally-resourced science advisory panels. In addition to general recommendations, we will also create specific guidance for communities of particular concern; artificial reefs, kelp beds, oyster beds, salt marshes, and sandy beaches.

Channel Islands2021-22 State Science Information Needs Program
Understanding production and attraction on artificial reefs to improve the science of mitigation​​​
NickolsKerrySteeleMarkState Science Information Needs Program2021-22
Scientific Summary:
Artificial reefs have emerged as a management tool to mitigate damage and loss of rocky reef habitat by land-based operations in California. Yet, there is substantial uncertainty about best practices for the design and construction of artificial reefs, as well as whether artificial reefs compensate for the activities they were designed to mitigate. A cause of this uncertainty is the difficulty in disentangling the degree to which artificial reefs lead to new production of marine organisms versus simply redistributing them by attracting them away from natural reefs. Our proposed research evaluates how attraction and production are influenced by 1) changes in size of the artificial reef, 2) life history traits, 3) proximity to nearby natural reefs, and 4) reef configuration. We will address these goals using an unprecedented 20+ year dataset – collected on the Wheeler North Artificial Reef and two reference natural reefs – of fish size and density, fish reproductive rates, and growth rates. We will analyze this dataset with a State Space Integral Projection Model to explicitly test hypotheses regarding the role of attraction and production on the artificial reef. The Wheeler North Artificial Reef has an extensive monitoring plan, however, the data collected are used to assess whether or not Wheeler North Reef is meeting mitigation standards for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and not to inform best practices for design and construction to maximize production of marine organisms. Leveraging this extensive data set will allow a rigorous examination of several questions that will directly inform management. Our project does not directly address one of the RFP research objectives, but is nonetheless strongly supported by two agencies (California Coastal Commission and California State Water Resources Control Board) that would use our results to develop policies for compensatory mitigation.

Plain Language Summary:
Artificial reefs are used to mitigate damage to natural rocky reefs in California. However, there are unanswered questions about how to best construct artificial reefs, as well as whether artificial reefs compensate for damage done to natural reefs. It is also difficult to tell if artificial reefs lead to new production of fish versus attracting them away from natural reefs. Our project evaluates how 1) changes in size of the artificial reef, 2) characteristics of fish species, 3) proximity to natural reefs, and 4) reef configuration influence attraction and production. We will use a 20+ year dataset – collected on the Wheeler North Artificial Reef and two nearby natural reefs – of fish size and density, fish reproductive rates, and growth rates, as well as a model of fish populations, to understand the roles of attraction and production on the artificial reef. This is a new use for the Wheeler North Reef data, which are currently only used to assess mitigation targets for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station. Our proposed analysis leverages that rich dataset to answer important questions about artificial reef management, and our results will inform the future design and construction of reefs to maximize fish production.

NorthridgeNorthridge2021-22 State Science Information Needs Program
collapse Year And Program : 2021-22 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program ‎(1)
Highlighting Seaweed Expertise in CSU System Interdisciplinary Symposium​​​​​​
KüblerJanetCuevas UribeRafaelShort Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program2021-22
The California State University System is home to deep expertise related to the rapidly expanding societal interest in seaweeds for human use and coastal ecosystem health. We propose to bring together CSU students, faculty and researchers working in the ecology, biology, oceanography, uses and aquaculture of seaweeds in California, at a 2-day event, co-located with a public facing event, on a CSU campus. The Symposium will include opportunities to present research and creative works in the form of live talks, posters and exhibits which will be open to the public attending the event. We will host a networking session, with invited guests from industry, coastal conservation organizations and agencies that interface with researchers. The goals of the Symposium are to raise the profile of seaweed research being done in CSU and to consciously foster collaborations between campuses on the topic of California seaweeds. To achieve those goals, we will provide the venue for presentations, opportunities to start conversation, assistance with travel to the Symposium from around the state and archiving of the live presentations online, all alongside the celebratory atmosphere of the California Seaweed Festival. The intellectual merit of this project lies in positioning CSU scientists at the forefront of state-level initiatives to develop macroalgal aquaculture along California’s working waterfront and to build capacities of resilience in both natural nearshore ecosystems and coastal socioeconomic systems: a trend emerging in other coastal states that could also benefit California. Highlighting Seaweed Expertise in the CSU System Interdisciplinary Symposium will take place October 7th and 8th, 2022 at the Bay Conference Center of the Estuary and Ocean Science Center, San Francisco State University. Organization of the Symposium is a collaboration of Janet Kübler, CSUN and Rafael Cuevas Uribe, California Polytechnic Humboldt.​

NorthridgeHumboldt2021-22 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program
collapse Year And Program : 2021-22 Rapid Response Program ‎(7)
Mapping Biodegradation of Subsurface Oil in Huntington Beach Sands​​​​
VozkaPetrRapid Response Program2021-22
The oil spill on October 1, 2021, off the coast of Huntington Beach, resulted in a temporary closure of the beach for clean-up efforts. On October 11, 2021, city officials and California State Parks announced the reopening of Huntington Beach “after water testing results came back with non-detectable amounts of oil-associated toxins in ocean water.” The beach was opened a mere ten days after the oil spill had been detected off the coastline. The decision to reopen was not met with the full support of the public, the majority concerned with the adverse health effects of oil spills. Research has shown that seawater and beach sands contaminated with oil spills pose an alarming threat to the coastal environment and human health. Assessing the chemical (oil including) contamination in oceans is a common practice. However, there has been limited research on sand beaches polluted with oil. Additionally, no official monitoring protocols or standards for oil spills are currently available. Therefore, the establishment of analytical methods for oil contamination in beach sands is required. In this project, we propose to (a) monitor the (bio)degradation of oil in sands from Huntington Beach over a year period, (b) develop fast analytical techniques to measure the sand toxicity levels, and (c) compare these levels to environmental standards and/or beaches not polluted with oil. Specifically, we will: (1) use comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) to monitor the concentrations of total hydrocarbon content and several targeted toxic chemicals (e.g., benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons); (2) utilize solid-phase microextraction techniques to measure low concentration levels; and (3) collect data from unpolluted beaches. If successful, this work will elucidate the (bio)degradation of subsurface oil and provide insight into the concentration levels of toxic compounds in Huntington Beach sands over one year period. Additionally, this work will address the following question: Was it safe to reopen Huntington Beach’s shoreline ten days after the oil spill incident?​

Los Angeles2021-22 Rapid Response Program
Assessing impacts of the Huntington Beach oil spill on benthic sediment decomposer communities in Talbert Marsh​​​
DillonJesseWhitcraftChristineRapid Response Program2021-22
An oil pipeline off Huntington Beach was found to be leaking on October 2, 2021, releasing up to 3,111 barrels of crude oil into the coastal zone. Oil washed onto neighboring beaches and into nearby wetlands including the Huntington Beach Wetland (HBW) complex where it was observed in various concentrations on the sediment surface and in the water in all three marshes, especially Talbert Marsh. This oil spill will have major ecological impacts on marsh communities especially sediment communities where the oil is likely to persist for long periods of time. It is imperative that we rapidly assess both the short-term and long-term impacts on the marsh. Comparisons will be made to our prior COAST-funded data collected on plants, invertebrate and microbial communities in Talbert Marsh before the oil spill. These data, our relationship with the HBW Conservancy and Dr. Whitcraft’s connection to the oil spill response effort uniquely positions us to be able to quickly assess the impacts of the spill on this critical ecosystem. We will investigate the immediate impacts of oiling on Talbert Marsh using next generation 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and sorting/taxonomic keying, respectively, to assess the taxonomic diversity of bacteria and benthic invertebrates in the marsh using core samples already collected on 10/24. We will analyze cores taken across an oiling gradient as determined by visual inspection. We will compare these data with analyses of hydrocarbons from sediment cores taken in parallel and analyzed by Kinetics Laboratory. Finally, we propose to monitor the long-term community impacts of oiling on Talbert Marsh via quarterly sampling for 1 year to assess the potential long-term impacts or recovery of the marsh sediment communities. This will support two women scientists: a multi-​racial master’s student and Asian-American undergraduate.​

Long BeachLong Beach2021-22 Rapid Response Program
Exceptional drought, coastal stream restoration and anadromous fish habitat​
BiggsTrentRapid Response Program2021-22
Overview: Populations of anadromous fish are threatened by both climate change, including exceptional drought, and direct human impacts on watersheds and channels, including logging, roads, removal of large woody debris, and large log dams created by logging waste. The objective of this project is to determine how the ongoing exceptional drought and local human activities, including logging and restoration, interact to impact coastal active stream channel networks and salmonid habitat in a coastal watershed (Indian Creek, Mendocino County). The project will fund travel for two students and the PI to the watershed in summer and early fall 2021 during a period of exceptional drought. Methods include a high-resolution ground survey of the stream channel to quantify aspects of the channel that are relevant for salmonid habitat, including wetted width and depth, total stream network extent, habitat complexity, pool frequency, and habitat complexity. Surveys will be completed in watersheds that have had either little or extensive restoration of roads and large woody debris. The data will be combined with existing models that predict salmonid habitat from field surveys to quantify salmonid habitat during the drought.

Intellectual Merit: This project addresses COAST’s Programmatic Goal of “advancing knowledge of coastal watersheds and processes that affect them” by quantifying how climate extremes interact with watershed and channel disturbance to impact salmonid populations. The exceptional drought currently underway in Mendocino County provides a unique opportunity to quantify these interactions. The proposed work supports COAST Goal 3 (“Support graduate and undergraduate student research”) and Goal 8 (“Support the marine-related informational needs of government staff and elected officials”) by providing actionable information on salmonid habitat to key government agencies (NOAA). The team has provided the locations of salmonid populations at risk due to pool disconnection and desiccation in June 2021, which is being used to plan rescue efforts.​

San Diego2021-22 Rapid Response Program
Documenting the Geomorphic Impacts of the Removal of a Small Dam in the Coast Ranges​​
GabetEmmanuelRapid Response Program2021-22
Restoration of steelhead and Coho salmon populations is a driving force behind many regional dam removal projects. In addition to obstructing passage to upstream reaches, dams can constrict the supply of spawning gravel. However, these projects are often not accompanied by monitoring programs to examine whether they achieve their intended geomorphic goals, especially in the case of small dams which are easier and more likely to be removed. We propose to study the effects of the removal of a small dam on Mill Creek, near Davenport (CA), to document the downstream dispersal of sediment and to determine whether it leads to a relative enrichment in spawning gravel along the bed of the channel. Repeat topographic surveys of 25 channel cross-sections and co-located Wolman pebble counts will provide a rich data-set for examining spatial and temporal changes in bed elevation, bed complexity, and particle size distributions. The dam is scheduled to be removed in early September (2021), giving us time to collect an initial set of data establishing baseline conditions before the fall rainy season. This work will form the basis of an MS thesis, as well as a manuscript that will be submitted to a peer-reviewed publication. Moreover, although this award is only for 12 months, monitoring of this site by my research group will continue for many years.​
San José2021-22 Rapid Response Program
Oil Related Pollutants in Southern California Estuaries Impacted by the Huntington Beach Oil Spill​​​​​​
HollandErikaWhitcraftChristineRapid Response Program2021-22
The introduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment has increased due to the rise of human populations, general automobile combustion, and disasters such as oil spills. The unfortunate spill that occurred off the coast of Huntington Beach Ca, Oct. 2021, lead to approximately 25,000 gallons of oil spilled into nearby coastal environments. Numerous news sources documented oil on beaches and local wetland environments placing human and wildlife at risk. Initial efforts to assess potential risk focused on assessing PAH concentrations in water and fish species to protect human health. Research regarding the long-term impacts of the spill on effected estuaries and sessile organisms is needed to determine the full extent of the disaster. Oysters and other filter feeding organisms are at a particular risk because they can accumulate PAHs from the water column, from PAHs bound to suspended particulate matter, and PAHs found in sediment surrounding oyster habitat. Compared to fish species, bivalve species generally accumulate higher PAH concentrations after a spill and PAHs from oil spills have been connected to decreased oyster population density. Oysters act as ecosystem engineers that contribute to habitat formation for other species and have the potential to build structures aiding in shoreline stabilization. The overall goal of the current proposal is to assess the impact of the spill on nearby estuaries focusing on concentrations of PAHs found in oysters and sediment surrounding oyster habitat. We will compare PAH concentrations in sediment and/or oyster tissue collected from before and after the spill and in samples collected through Dec. 2022. This study will assess the contribution of the HB oil spill to oil related pollution in estuaries of the Huntington Beach Wetlands Complex and Upper Newport Bay to determine potential long-term risk presented to resident species namely bivalves and bivalve consuming vertebrates.

Long BeachLong Beach2021-22 Rapid Response Program
Oil exposure to birds as a result of the Huntington Beach oil spill​​​​
Bonisoli AlquatiAndreaRapid Response Program2021-22
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the main toxicants in oil, has a number ​of deleterious effects on the behavior, physiology and demography of birds. The Huntington Beach oil spill contaminated shores and coastal wetlands in Orange County, exposing to oil the birds that forage or nest in or near the contaminated sites. The lack of planned investigation into the toxicological consequences of such exposure is in stark contrast with accumulating evidence of the toxicological risks to breeding and migrating birds. The proposed research aims to fill this gap in knowledge by quantifying the concentrations of PAHs in the circulation of adult Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus), and in previously collected eggs of two seabird species, the Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger) and Forster’s Tern (Sterna forsteri), with the aim to provide a baseline against which future measurements of egg PAHs concentrations can be compared.

Pomona2021-22 Rapid Response Program
Valuing public access to recreational and subsistence fishing along the berkeley waterfront
AntinoriCamilleKingPhilRapid Response Program2021-22
In December 2021, Berkeley city council voted to move forward with a waterfront redevelopment proposal and is scheduled to make decisions over the next 6‐8 months that would solidify these planning decisions. The plans themselves have potential to impinge on public shoreline access for a broad cross section of the California population who walk, fish, engage in water sports or simply seek a relaxing​ outdoor setting. Despite expectations that park‐oriented activities would receive a full and consistent accounting explicitly in the design vision, the scope of these activities has been underrepresented in the current policy making process and work plans have tended to omit the capture of key information. Of all waterfront uses in Berkeley, recreational and subsistence fishing are the least represented, partly due to the individual nature of the activity and the disperse regions outside of Berkeley from which fishermen travel. An equity issue also exists as fishermen in this area strongly represent people of color and households with income below the San Francisco Bay Area median. This project fills that gap using sound social science methodology based on the "travel cost method" in environmental economics and generates both quantitative and qualitative information, including an estimated monetary value of public shoreline and pier fishing with comparisons across socioeconomic groups. Building on a project begun with seed money from the Lam Family College of Business, the PI will involve undergraduate and graduate students to make results available not only for peer‐reviewed article publication but also summary reports available by August 2022 to be useful for the policymaking process currently underway.​

San FranciscoSan Francisco2021-22 Rapid Response Program
collapse Year And Program : 2021-22 Grant Development Program ‎(5)
Trophic transfer efficiency of PFAS in a coastal marine trophic web​​​​
Bonisoli AlquatiAndreaGrant Development Program2021-22
Exposure to per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), also known as ‘forever chemicals due to their environmental persistence, is a concern for environmental scientists and managers from academia, government, and non-governmental organizations. Yet, PFAS potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in marine food webs remains largely unknown. This complicates the assessment of their ecotoxicity and risk to human health. The proposed project will build towards the understanding of PFAS biomagnification from fish to the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) in a coastal marine food web in Southern California.

The project has two objectives:
1. Identify PFAS at greater concentrations and greater biomagnification risk from fish to the California least tern;
2. Identify PFAS transferred at the highest concentrations from tern mothers to their eggs.

The PI and students from his lab will collect fish samples and California least tern blood and eggs. Concentration data in the biological samples will be produced for an extensive list of 28 PFAS with state-of-the-art analytical approaches, building credibility for future projects with more extensive sampling across individuals and species. The students will learn how to conduct sampling of fish and wildlife species, and how to interpret PFAS concentration data and their relationship to known toxicity reference values. The project will leverage a network of collaborations across institutions in California and beyond. It will also count on the established permits and the availability of historical data and samples from the same least tern colony.​ ​The preliminary data will serve as the basis for a grant proposal to be addressed to the Department of Defense. The proposed project will expand on the collected data by:
(a) More explicitly examining biomagnification across a larger number of trophic levels, from zooplankton to fish to California least terns.
(b) Assessing the toxicological effects of PFAS bioaccumulation and transfer in terms of hatching and fledging success.​

Pomona$20,0002021-22 Grant Development Program
Determining the adaptive value and molecular correlates of developmental plasticity in larvae of the Pacific sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus.​​
PaceDouglasGrant Development Program2021-22
​Phenotypic plasticity is an important mechanism for allowing organisms to respond to changes in their environment. Plasticity responses are especially important during development in marine invertebrate larval stages where they are passively floating in the water column and have no control over environmental conditions such as food level. During food-induced developmental plasticity, larvae of the Pacific sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus, respond by adaptively changing their morphology and physiology. Larvae receiving low amounts of food will grow longer arms and transiently possess higher efficiencies of metabolism and growth relative to larvae in a high food environment. However, there are still major knowledge gaps regarding the full adaptive value of this response pathway and the molecular mechanisms that support it. Aim 1 will assess the adaptive value of the plasticity response in temporally variable food environments (low-fed larvae switched to high-food conditions). Consequences of this food level variation will be assessed by studying changes in rates of development and physiological growth efficiency compared to constant low- and high-fed larvae. Aim 2 will assess molecular correlates of developmental plasticity. Differential gene expression will be assessed in low- and high-fed larvae using RNA-seq, with candidate genes being validated by RT-qPCR. Completion of this research will result in an integrative and compelling set of data that will be incorporated into a competitive NSF research proposal.

Long Beach$20,0002021-22 Grant Development Program
Comparative Transcriptomics in the Intertidal Snail Tegula Genus to Examine Heat Stress Adaptation in the Era of Climate Change​​​
GleasonLaniGrant Development Program2021-22
With temperatures rising globally, an increased understanding of the rate at which heat toleranceevolves is urgently needed. To fill this knowledge gap, new research must compare genetic differences between species, while also taking into account their evolutionary relationships, so genes contributing to adaptive thermal tolerance can be identified. The proposed research will use a comparative genomics approach in three Tegula intertidal snail species to provide additional insight into the rate of adaptive thermal tolerance evolution. Tegula is an ideal study system because known phylogenetic history for the genus enables the identification of adaptive genetic differences that are not simply due to shared ancestry. In southern California, Tegula gallina exhibits higher survival following heat stress compared to co-occurring species Tegula funebralis and Tegula eiseni. What is not fully understood is which specific genes contribute to survival differences, and whether the evolutionary rate of adaptation in this genus is likely to facilitate genetic changes that can “keep up” with a warming climate. This project will use RNA-sequencing to study species-specific responses to heat stress in three Tegula species. My students and I will:

1) Identify genes whose high temperature expression response indicates they are adaptive (and contribute to survival in thermally stressful environments); and
2) Identify genes related to thermal response undergoing positive selection (e.g. genes with putatively advantageous nucleotide mutations).

This research will inform future conservation planning. Specifically, results will help to determine whether species will be able to adapt to rising temperatures, or whether alternative processes such as acclimation, plasticity, and migration will be more important for survival. A future NSF Integrative Ecological Physiology proposal will expand this work to additional Tegula species to create a novel network model that can predict thermal response of ecologically important Tegula species in the field and thus provide insight regarding extinction risks.

Sacramento$20,0002021-22 Grant Development Program
Where are the Whales? Filling in Conservation Monitoring Gaps along California’s Central Coast with Bioacoustics​​​
Schroth-GlanzMaddieLiwanagHeatherGrant Development Program2021-22
Understanding and maintaining ocean ecosystems can be achieved through extensive monitoring efforts of marine life. Unfortunately, the ocean environment poses many challenges that limit our capabilities to perform such tasks. Generally, a useful way to study marine mammals is through passive bioacoustic techniques. While various individuals have made significant contributions to the monitoring efforts along the Central Coast of California, there is a substantial gap of understudied waters between the Channel Islands and Monterey Bay. We propose to contribute to the monitoring efforts of marine mammal species along the Central Coast of California by creating an acoustic monitoring station off the coast of San Luis Obispo County. This will allow us to: 

(1) identify what marine mammal species use this part of the coast, 
(2) quantify the presence and abundance of humpback and gray whales over time, and 
(3) identify the extent of anthropogenic noise in the region. 

COAST funds will be utilized to acquire an essential piece of equipment needed for deployment of the SoundTrap600 HF hydrophone used for acoustic assessments. The Central Coast pilot data will be used in myriad ways. Data will be shared with other agencies involved in current monitoring efforts once long-term deployments are underway. Undergraduate students will help develop machine learning models for automatic detection via classroom projects to make future analyses easier and more attainable. Additionally, the hydrophone mooring and data acquired will help motivate the creation of a new bioacoustics course in the Marine Science Program. This project will create multiple research opportunities for undergraduate students at Cal Poly. Lastly, our intention with these pilot data is to showcase a need for more monitoring stations along the Central Coast of California to appeal to larger funding agencies. COAST funds will help support these efforts and more.

San Luis ObispoSan Luis Obispo$20,0002021-22 Grant Development Program
Assessing Marine Mammal Bycatch in Chilean Artisanal Fisheries​​​​
MateraJaimeHinesEllenGrant Development Program2021-22
This interdisciplinary research will assess marine mammal bycatch in the artisanal fisheries of Chile and its socioeconomic characteristics to better understand complex human-ecological interactions. Chile’s efforts towards MMPA compliance offers an important opportunity for meaningful research into marine mammal conservation and bycatch mitigation that considers both social and ecological aspects to promote inclusive and effective management programs. This is critical in areas with high overlap of marine mammals and fisheries, and where little information exists on the extent of bycatch and livelihoods, as is the case of many artisanal fisheries worldwide. While Chile has made strides towards understanding the extent of bycatch from the commercial fisheries, little data exists on bycatch from the artisanal fishing sector, which employs over 90,000 fishers along its Pacific coastline, creating a mosaic of diverse social, institutional, and ecological attributes that complicate collaborative resource management. Research will take place in San Antonio, central coast of Chile, where bycatch of threatened and endangered marine mammal species, including the Chilean Dolphin (Cephalorhynchus eutropia) and Burmeister ́s porpoises (Phocoena spinipinnis), have been documented. We will collect socioeconomic and ecological data using structured and semistructured interviews and focus groups with independent and organized artisanal fishers, and officials in charge of ensuring compliance with MMPA and other fishery regulations. Interviews will focus on estimating marine mammal bycatch from the artisanal fishery, understanding its socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, discerning fisher’s attitudes towards marine mammals, and capturing perceptions about marine conservation policies. Importantly, we will engage stakeholders to examine ways to mitigate negative human-marine mammal interactions that considers both social and environmental criteria. Data gathered by this proposed research project will support an NSF Dynamics of Integrated Socio-Environmental Systems (DISES) proposal to be submitted November 2022 to assess country-wide spatial and temporal marine mammal bycatch risk for fisheries management and conservation planning.

Channel IslandsSan Francisco$19,9962021-22 Grant Development Program
collapse Year And Program : 2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program ‎(9)
Micro and nanoplastic identification in aqueous samples using Nano-IR​​​​​​
DominguezGerardoState Science Information Needs Program2020-21
We propose to evaluate and develop sample handling, particle identification, and protocols for using NanoIR imaging to accurately and efficiently count and classify micro- and nano-plastic particles found in aqueous samples. While the main focus will be on nanoplastics, our work may also enable rapid microplastic particle identification and polymer classification. To do this, we proposed to use advanced analytical instrumentation that the PI co-developed as a postdoctoral fellow and that has been applied successfully to map out the composition of natural samples including cometary dust grains and meteorites. We will validate these methods using nanoplastic standards and we will work with collaborators to apply the techniques to examining the nano and micro-plastic content of aqueous field samples. This development, if successful, promises to significantly expand our knowledge and understanding of the sources and sinks of micro- and nano-plastic particles in the environment.

San Marcos2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program
Assessing fate and toxicity of microplastics under coastal environment​ conditions​​​
HohEunhaMladenovNatalieSantKarilynState Science Information Needs Program2020-21
The research goals of the proposed project are to 1) evaluate the dissolution of chemicals from microfibers and tire wear particles in seawater under sunlight-exposed and dark conditions, 2) elucidate mechanisms of aquatic toxicity produced by leaching chemicals from the new and aged microplastics, and 3) identify chemicals responsible for toxicity. Experimental setups will be conducted to leach microfibers and tire wear particles at environmentally  ​​relevant concentrations. Irradiation experiments will be conducted to stimate photodegradation rates of leached compounds. Non-targeted analysis will be a primary tool in this study and will provide unprecedented detection of previously unknown chemicals associated with microfibers and tire wear particles. Zebrafish embryotoxicity studies will be performed using the leachates, and gene expression will be analyzed to evaluate mechanisms of toxicity.

Previous toxicological studies have focused largely on non-fiber and non-rubber microplastics, such as microbeads and broken fragments of larger plastics, and most studies describe effects due to the particles themselves rather than the leached constituents. Considering the far greater number of microfibers (from textiles and tire wear) found in California’s coastal waters, this study focuses on these two categories of microplastics. Also, recent studies have shown that 23,600 metric tons of dissolved organic carbon are leaching from marine plastics annually, and these dissolved compounds have unknown effects on marine organisms. Most ecotoxicology studies have focused on gross outcomes such as mortality, but the overall mechanisms of toxicity remain poorly characterized. 

The work proposed here is relevant to the stated science needs, primarily the needs expressed under Research Objective #2 of the RFP, Ecotoxicology. This interdisciplinary study will address a critical gap in the science of microplastics, specifically the need for a more mechanistic understanding of the toxicity of leached chemical constituents from textile-derived and tire-derived microplastics.

San DiegoSan DiegoSan Diego2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program

​Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Groundwater Pollution Vulnerability in Shallow Coastal Aquifers

HagedornBenjaminBecker MattBramDanielle State Science Information Needs Program2020-21
Scientific Summary:
The impact of rising sea levels on surface flooding (coastal inundation) has been thoroughly explored for low-lying metropolitan areas. Less understood, however, is the impact that rising sea levels will have on groundwater levels and quality. Fresh groundwater essentially floats atop seawater in coastal aquifers so sea-level rise (SLR) will bring rising groundwater that may potentially mobilize contaminants from the unsaturated zone. In industrial areas, for example, hazardous waste tanks, landfills, and impoundments are sited where depth to groundwater is sufficiently large to mitigate environmental releases. Many of these sites will need to be reevaluated by Water Boards and other regulators as groundwater levels rise. Furthermore, there is a lack of information and data on the potential effect of SLR on groundwater resources in disadvantaged communities (DACs). We will evaluate potential impacts using various Geographic Information System (GIS) methodologies, as well as groundwater flow and chemical transport models that have been applied in other regional studies. 

To identify areas of concern, we propose to utilize (1) digital elevation model based topographic analysis, (2) available groundwater level databases, (3) hazardous waste and environmental release spatial datasets, (4) grid-free groundwater models, (5) reactive transport models of groundwater quality, and (6) demographic and socio-economic spatial datasets to identify disadvantaged communities. GIS analyses will be run on all low-lying coastal regions of California, and detailed studies will be conducted on two representative low-lying coastal communities. The project will team experts in GIS, demography, physical hydrology, and groundwater chemistry to identify potential areas of concern both for rising groundwater in general and more specifically, for vulnerable disadvantaged populations. These areas will be ranked according to severity and immediacy as a basis for regulators to prioritize management and planning efforts in the face of rising sea levels.

Plain Language Summary: 
Lack of safe and reliable drinking water is an issue that disproportionately affects residents of California's coastal communities due to increasing population and rising sea levels. A rising groundwater table caused by widespread sea level rise (SLR) can have serious impacts on infrastructure, natural ecosystems, and human health. In this project, we will explore the scope of this potential impact under multiple SLR scenarios. Specifically, we will focus on how rising groundwater might impact sites with contaminated soils and hazardous waste storage and disposal sites.  Environmentally impacted sites may experience contamination release as soil moisture rises and groundwater seeps into subsurface tanks and impoundments. We will explore the entire low-lying coast of California, then focus on two selected coastal groundwater basins to evaluate potential impacts. Both the broad and focused studies will investigate how potential contamination releases might disproportionately impact disadvantaged communities.  

Long BeachLong BeachNorthridge2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program

​Sustaining Beaches and Social Equity under Higher Sea Levels: An interdisciplinary case study of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell

PatschKikiKingPhilipReinemanDanRobertsNinaState Science Information Needs Program2020-21
Scientific Summary​:​
​This project will assess how marginalized communities’ access to California’s shoreline will be impacted by sea level rise and develop guidelines for how to best manage beaches currently and under higher sea levels. Specifically, we will collect and analyze data related to coastal access equity and environmental justice by measuring both the current demand through beach intercept surveys and observational data collection as well as the latent demand for beaches with a regional survey of households, informed by our beach intercept survey and through direct engagement utilizing focus group interviews in the counties of interest, to explore the factors that enable and inhibit beach access and use. These data will address present-day inequities in the accessibility for different demographic groups and underserved communities in the study area. Our social scientific data will be combined with an existing database on beach geomorphology and ecology to generate a beach access model which incorporates future changes in beach and back-beach profiles as well as access inequities/barriers.

We will provide a tool for collecting, analyzing, and decision-making to support coastal decision makers, local managers, engaged stakeholders, and the general public to facilitate access to the coast by all Californians today and tomorrow.

Plain Language Summary:
​California’s beaches are threatened by sea level rise; Iconic beaches will disappear by 2100—losses whose impacts will not be distributed evenly among California’s diverse population. Sustaining beaches and equitable access requires coordinated efforts by stakeholders combined with knowledge of beach resilience as well as how beach management affects access, use, environmental justice, and economic value. 

This project focuses on the economic and environmental justice issues related to access, incorporating projected changes in beach size and availability. Our analysis will fold into a Beach Sustainability Assessment (BSA) including social science, ecology, and the physical changes projected for beaches. This assessment will be combined with estimates based on the best available data and methods, of beach value, visitation, and accessibility along with the barriers that reduce them and the people and communities who experience those barriers. From these, we can measure current inequities and barriers to beach access, identify beach access points threatened by sea level rise, and develop guidelines for how to best manage beaches in the present and under higher sea levels so they can be enjoyed by all different people and communities while integrating the importance of the beach with the frameworks of the economy, ecology, and morphology. 

Channel IslandsSan FranciscoChannel IslandsSan Francisco2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program

​Development of Cost-effective Metrics for Monitoring Living Shorelines

ZacherlDanielleCarlinJosephMillerLukeWhitcraftChristineState Science Information Needs Program2020-21
​Scientific Summary:
Sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change threatens California shorelines because of restricted opportunities for upslope migration and due to shoreline erosion, putting our coastal habitats at risk. California’s resource managers are increasingly pursuing “living shoreline” initiatives that use natural habitats to promote shoreline resiliency.

In direct alignment with SSINP SLR Research Objective 3.1, our team of investigators from CSU Long Beach, CSU Fullerton, San Diego State University, and OC Coastkeeper seeks to leverage a well-established, ongoing restoration effort in Newport Bay, Newport Beach by substantially expanding the monitoring scope and, importantly, extending the timeline to determine the extent to which oyster and eelgrass beds can act as living shorelines that promote shoreline resiliency while providing a suite of ecological benefits beyond the targeted organisms, including habitat creation and trophic support. We propose a robust, long-term monitoring framework that quantifies more than 45 physical and biological metrics; our team will apply a statistical approach to evaluate which of the metrics we measure are the most cost-effective and accurate indicators of functional outcomes, and which best predict the restoration trajectory of oyster and eelgrass beds. We will thus contribute to the development of monitoring protocols that can be applied inexpensively and can be used to predict a broad array of success outcomes (SSINP SLR Research Objective 3.1). Results will be shared with government agencies and organizations (e.g., Southern California Wetlands Recovery Project, Orange County MPA Collaborative, Native Olympia Oyster Collaborative) and the public, promoting living shorelines to address sea level rise. Because CSULB, CSUF, and SDSU are Hispanic-Serving Institutions, where > 50% of students are low-income, first-generation college students, our project will benefit disadvantaged CA communities via education and workforce development through direct involvement of at least seven paid undergraduate and M.S. students.​​

​Plain Language Summary: 
Sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change may cause habitat loss and shoreline erosion along the California coastline. California’s resource managers are seeking to understand whether native habitat restoration could address SLR by preventing shoreline erosion while also providing ecological benefits. Ideally, monitoring protocols for such projects should be low-cost and efficient so that measuring a few simple factors could predict a broad array of restoration outcomes. Investigators from CSU Long Beach, CSU Fullerton, San Diego State University, and OC Coastkeeper will leverage an ongoing oyster and eelgrass restoration effort in Newport Bay, Newport Beach by expanding the scope and duration of monitoring to determine how effectively these habitats can promote shoreline resiliency while providing additional ecological benefits, including habitat creation and food chain support. We will evaluate which of over 45 measured physical and biological factors are the most cost-effective and accurate indicators of long-term restoration success, contributing to the development of less costly and simplified monitoring protocols. Because CSULB, CSUF, and SDSU are Hispanic-Serving Institutions, where > 50% of students are low-income, first-generation college students, our project will benefit disadvantaged CA communities via education and workforce development through involvement of multiple paid students.​

FullertonFullertonSan DiegoLong Beach2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program
Strengthening sustainability in an acidified ocean: does the co-culture of seaweeds and shellfish improve shell integrity in farmed red abalone? (Match for 2021 California Sea Grant New Faculty Award)​​​​
deVriesMayaGrahamMichaelHamiltonScottState Science Information Needs Program2020-21
The central objective of the proposed project is to understand how the co-culturing of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and red seaweed dulse (Devaleraea mollis) may reduce stress and improve shell integrity, including calcification patterns and biomechanical properties, in abalone under ocean acidification (OA) conditions. Abalone appear to be extremely vulnerable to OA, exhibiting shell damage and reduced growth under high pCO2 conditions. Investigating the central objective will help improve the viability of abalone aquaculture by revealing how co-culture might mitigate stress and reduce shell damage that can decrease the economic value of abalone. To address this objective, the proposed project will investigate three primary questions and corresponding hypotheses:

Q1. How do the material and biomechanical properties of abalone shell respond to OA conditions?
Hypothesis: Abalone shells will be thinner, weaker, less calcified, and show signs of increased corrosion under OA conditions.

Q2. How do these material and mechanical responses correlate with stress responses in abalone?
Hypothesis: Changes in material and mechanical properties of abalone shells will correlate with increased physiological stress under OA conditions.

Q3. Does the co-culture of abalone and seaweeds ameliorate negative physiological and biomechanical responses to OA in red abalone?
Hypothesis: The co-culture of abalone and seaweeds will significantly decrease physiological stress in abalone, while yielding stronger, more calcified shells that exhibit less dissolution.

San JoséSan JoséSan José2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program
Quantifying the production rate of bromoform (CHBr3) from cultured Asparagopsis (Match for 2021 California Sea Grant New Faculty Award)

GrandMaximeGardnerLukeState Science Information Needs Program2020-21
The overarching goal of this project is to explore the current and potential future impact of seaweed aquaculture in California on the natural flux of volatile bromocarbon gases​​ to the atmosphere. Our objectives consist of measuring the production of bromoform and dibromomethane by 7 different local species of seaweed, with a particular focus on species that may be mass produced to generate feed additives to reduce methane emissions from ruminant livestock. We also seek to reduce the uncertainty associated with traditional measurement techniques through the development of a novel tank incubation protocol mimicking long-line seaweed cultivation practices at the Moss Landing Marine Labs Aquaculture Facility and by quantifying diurnal variations in the production rates of brominated gases by seaweeds.​​​
San JoséSan José2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program
Study of the biology of night smelt (Spirinchus starksi) in Humboldt and Del Norte counties (Match for 2021 California Sea Grant New Faculty Award)​​​

Marin JarrinJoseState Science Information Needs Program2020-21
Despite the commercial, ecological and cultural importance of night smelt, very little is know about its biology or ecology. The objectives of this project would be to (1) identify and describe the as yet unknown larvae of night smelt, using genetic barcoding, and (2) study the status of the adult population in northern California by aging the otoliths of adult night smelt extracted in 2014, collecting additional adult smelt at the same locations during similar months in 2021, and compare Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE), length, age, weight, and sex ratios between the two years. Comparing these two years would allow us to study how the population has changed in the last 7 years, and better understand the potential impacts of the 2015 marine heat wave, referred to as ‘the blob’, and 2016 El Niño, both of which are phenomena that are expected to be strengthened and made more common by climate change.

To accomplish these objectives we will collaborate with Katherine Meyer of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife who was Principal Investigator of the 2014 study, James Ray (“key personnel”) of California Department of Fish and Wildlife in the Eureka office, Dr. Eric Bjorkstedt, researcher with the Southwest Fisheries Science Center, based at HSU, Megan Van Pelt, executive director of the Tribal Marine Stewards Network and Sherri Norris, executive director of the California Indian Environmental Alliance. Ms. Van Pelt and Ms. Norris will serve as liaisons between project participants and their networks, which includes the Tolowa Dee-ni’ Nation, Trinidad Rancheria, Wiyot Tribe, and Resighini Rancheria, to encourage knowledge exchange and assist with development of their fisheries management capacity.​

Humboldt2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program
Frameworks for Managing the Known Risk of Sea Level Rise Inundation of Humboldt Bay Nuclear Power Plant’s Spent Nuclear Fuel Site (Match for 2021 California Sea Grant New Faculty Award)​​​

MarlowJenniferState Science Information Needs Program2020-21
This project will address risk from sea level rise vulnerability to a spent nuclear fuel site located on a bluff 44 feet above Humboldt Bay. One goal of the research is to address the critical need for information to enhance public understanding of the site’s vulnerability to sea level rise and the integrity of the spent fuel casks over time. Another goal is to assess whether participatory research can enhance future actions to mitigate for such risk by making decision making more inclusive of regional interests. The research will gain insights into the strengths and weaknesses of participatory scenario planning methods for embracing the critical uncertainties about the site’s future, and for helping critical stakeholders evaluate pathways for mitigating risk and avoiding unintended consequences. The research will also apply conflict resolution frameworks in order to identify common pathways for addressing vulnerability, given the highly controversial nature of the issue. The research aims for its outcomes to be shaped by direct participation from critical stakeholders seeking to influence decision making about future protections for the site. These outcomes will be shared through public outreach and academic publications targeted at policy makers developing standards for nuclear waste management that take sea level rise–risk into account.​​
Humboldt2020-21 State Science Information Needs Program
collapse Year And Program : 2020-21 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program ‎(1)
CSU Openscapes C​hampions Mentorship Program​​
LoganCherylNickolsKerrySilbigerNyssaShort Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program2020-21
The open science movement broadly states that science should be conducted in an open,
transparent, and reproducible manner where all research components (data, physical samples,
code/software, and publications) are open and accessible to the public. Open science increases
the reliability and reproducibility of research, the speed of doing science, and, for individual
scientists, can also provide reputational gains and increased chances of publication. Although
many CSU-COAST faculty are eager to foster open science practices in their research labs, lack
of training, time, and support can hinder implementation. This is especially true for faculty
conducting research at undergraduate focused institutions where they cannot rely on postdocs or
PhD students to lead such efforts. Openscapes Champions is a mentorship program for research
groups with the aim of creating a positive open culture in science, enabling scientists to “do
better science in less time”. The program has been implemented in R1 research labs, but has yet
to be implemented in primarily undergraduate institutions. In this proposal, the PIs will work
with Openscapes Director, Julia Lowndes, to pilot the Openscapes mentorship program for the
first time in the CSU system, across 5 CSU-COAST research lab groups. The pilot program will
be implemented in four virtual sessions over two months between May-June 2021. Centered
around collaborative coding and open science, Openscapes will meet CSU-COAST research
students where they are and help develop habits and mindsets to make data workflows and team
culture more efficient and resilient. Our goal is to empower young scientists by mentoring them
to become champions for open practices, supporting them to improve open practices within their
labs and campuses.

Monterey BayNorthridgeNorthridge2020-21 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program
collapse Year And Program : 2020-21 Rapid Response Program ‎(4)

​Persistence of SARS Coronavirus-2 in natural waters

MladenovNatalieVerbylaMatthewRapid Response Program2020-21
Recent findings of the presence of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the disease COVID-19, in untreated wastewater have important implications for coastal water quality and public health. Research by our groups has shown that the major source of pathogenic ​ microorganisms to the San Diego River and its tributaries is untreated wastewater, derived most likely from sewer exfiltration or sanitary sewer overflows. Wastewater also can be introduced directly into coastal zones from ocean sewage outfalls. Studies have shown that different coronaviruses can persist on surfaces and in wastewater for days. Yet, much still remains to be understood about how long SARS-CoV-2 may persist in the water matrix after its introduction from different wastewater inputs. The persistence of the virus in water may be influenced by icroorganisms and chemical constituents in the water column as well as sunlight and other environmental factors. This study will use a combination of experimental and analytical techniques to measure concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater directly and in natural waters (riverine and seawater) spiked with 20% wastewater in simulated sunlight and dark conditions over time. Wastewater used for this study will be collected from the influent of two wastewater treatment facilities in San Diego County, receiving and treating wastewater from more than 2.2 million residents. This research will advance knowledge of the presence of the virus in wastewater influent and of its degradation due to photochemical processes. A graduate student will be mentored by PIs Mladenov and Verbyla to conduct experimental work and analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in water samples. Preliminary data from this study will inform future research directions and be conveyed to decision makers and local communities so that the risks associated with wastewater spills and other inputs to surface waters are better understood.​​

San DiegoSan Diego2020-21 Rapid Response Program

​Summer sandy beach monitoring: The effects of shelter-in-place on Southern California beaches

PatschKikiAndersonSeanRapid Response Program2020-21
​Goal : Collect highly perishable beach condition data in the wake of the unprecedented months of coronavirus-driven beach closures.

Our Sandy Beach Research Group has been monitoring and sampling southern California beaches to refine our Beach Sustainability Assessment (BSA) index for the past seven years. Just as we are finalizing and publishing this new tool for coastal managers, the most significant reduction in human visitation to beaches in California’s modern history began with Covid-19-driven beach closures across the state. Simultaneously, our annual, early-summer monitoring of 40+ beaches has been made nearly impossible given our student technicians have been forced to return home, often dispersing across the state. Additionally, our current campus and CSU policy of restricting access to laboratories and state-owned research equipment complicates our ability to map our sites with our drone fleet. At this time, when the utility and sensitivity of our nascent BSA index can be best demonstrated, our ability to collect field data is extremely reduced. 

We therefore seek funding to support the additional travel costs for the early summer season imposed on our field personnel by homestay and campus closures. This funding would primarily support students and licensed drone pilots who must now travel much greater distances to get to our various beach sites across Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Los Angeles counties. All field visits would be made by a single or limited (2) number of technicians at any given beach, following our newly-crafted Coronavirus safety protocols. All sandy and invertebrate samples will be retained by technicians until university laboratories reopen. 

Securing this funding would assure collection of this highly perishable data on extant beach conditions, potentially unique in our lifetimes.

Channel IslandsChannel Islands2020-21 Rapid Response Program
​Drone-based monitoring of a potential eelgrass recovery following an estuary-wide collapse in a major California estuary

WalterRyanFrickerAndrewRapid Response Program2020-21
​In shallow coastal and estuarine habitats, seagrass meadows are declining at an alarming rate, resulting in the loss of important ecosystem services. Morro Bay, an estuary in central California, historically supported one of the state’s largest eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations. However, from 2007 to 2017, intertidal eelgrass in Morro Bay underwent an unprecedented collapse, declining from 139.2 ha (344 acres) in 2007 to 5.4 ha (13 acres) in 2017. The estuary-wide loss of eelgrass resulted in drastic changes, ranging from a shift in fish species composition and loss of habitat specialists to widespread erosion in places that previously supported eelgrass. As part of a funded project that recently ended, drone-based surveys from December 2017 to December 2019 showed signs of partial recovery with total eelgrass acreage going from 5.4 ha (13.3 acres) to 14.9 ha (36.7 acres). This, combined with recent successful small-scale restoration efforts led by the Morro Bay National Estuary Program (MBNEP), suggests that Morro Bay may be going through another major period of transition and possible reemergence of the major biogenic habitat. It is critical to continue to track eelgrass acreage during this time with important ramifications for the physical, biological, and chemical environment. We are requesting funding to support a high-resolution drone-based survey using a new multispectral camera at the end of 2020 during this critical eelgrass transition period. This project will strengthen collaborations among researchers at Cal Poly and other organizations, support an undergraduate student, and provide community partners (MBNEP) and regulatory agencies with results to inform future restoration and adaptive management approaches. Moreover, the data generated from this project will likely be included in future publications on the status of eelgrass in Morro Bay, as well as future research efforts assessing drone-based monitoring of eelgrass health and automated classification techniques.

San Luis ObispoSan Luis Obispo2020-21 Rapid Response Program

​Fire Impacts on Steelhead Spawning Gravel in the Carmel River​

SmithDougRapid Response Program2020-21

The sources, transport and sinks of salmonid spawning gravel in Mediterranean climate watersheds are poorly understood. Past work on the Carmel River in central California suggests that virtually no new gravel enters the streams without catastrophic, fire-mediated slope failure. There is a short window of opportunity to fully document post-fire slope failure and the impacts on steelhead spawning gravel in winter 2020/2021. The urgency stems from the need to capture pre-rain baseline data and to then capture slope-failure events following significant rain events.
We propose to observe (small drone video) and describe the slope failure processes that are likely to occur on specific burned slopes in Winter 2020-21, directly adjacent to the Carmel River channel. We will also describe the degree to which new sediment has entered the river through reconnaissance hikes along the toe of slope. After the winter flows have ebbed, we will quantify the change in spawning gravel conditions in the river channel near the slopes via a BACI statistical comparison with a long-term (7 year) data set collected using identical methods at the same benchmarked locations in the river.
It is unclear why the California South-Central Coast Steelhead Distinct Population Segment has been in decline since 1996. Paucity of spawning-sized gravel downstream of San Clemente Dam
was identified as one potential limiting factor in that watershed. A long-term study of spawning gravel was initiated in 2013 in anticipation of the San Clemente Dam removal in 2015. That
study collected 100 bed particle-size counts from 66 benchmarked transects spanning a range of morphological units annually to 2020. The sites were selected to afford a robust BACI analysis to determine the effect of dam removal. Two of those sites, located adjacent to our study slopes never accumulated enough spawning gravel to cover the boulders and large cobbles that are too never accumulated enough spawning gravel to cover the boulders and large cobbles that are too coarse for redds. Our study will track how those sites respond to fire-driven catastrophic input of new sediment. Future work will track the evolution of any significant sediment inputs through time and space as the sediment slug moves past our other monitoring sites.

Monterey Bay$50002020-21 Rapid Response Program
collapse Year And Program : 2020-21 Grant Development Program ‎(7)

Mechanistic underpinnings of Galápagos coral thermal tolerance

LoganCherylGrant Development Program2020-21


​Coral reef ecosystems provide >$30 billion USD​ in food security, coastal protection, and tourism each year. Global warming is threatening the future of corals though increasing rates of coral ​bleaching. Bleaching occurs when corals expel the colorful photosynthetic algae that provide them food when water temperature gets too warm. Regions like the Galápagos islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, with an extended history of bleaching, provide a potential ‘early warning’ case study for understanding the long-term effects of repeat bleaching. Unexpectedly, these surviving Galápagos corals may be uniquely thermally resistant to both heat and cold temperatures. In this proposal, we will examine the mechanistic underpinnings of coral thermal tolerance at six representative sites across the Galápagos archipelago. We will leverage in situ temperature tolerance data and tissue samples collected during PI Logan’s sabbatical to the Galápagos in 2019 to investigate genomic mechanisms of measured heat- and cold- tolerance phenotypes. Identification of thermally “tough” corals in this unique region may help in reseeding other locations for long-term persistence of corals in the face of a changing climate. Research will support an MS thesis and undergraduate Honors capstone project at CSUMB. Findings will be disseminated in the peer-reviewed literature and presented at the International Coral Reef Symposium and the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting. Data collected will be also used to develop an NSF-IOS proposal to extend this work to other reef locations within the Eastern Tropical Pacific.

Monterey Bay$20,0002020-21 Grant Development Program

Ocean Acidification and Light as Environmental Drivers of Domoic Acid Toxicity in Coastal and Estuarine Ecosystems of California

CochlanWilliamGrant Development Program2020-21

The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA) is produced by multiple species of the Pseudo-nitzschia diatom genus, and poses a significant health threat to marine mammals, seabirds, and humans via transfer of this toxin through the marine food web. Exposure in humans causes aneurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning. Regular monitoring of DA concentrations in edible shellfish tissues has been an effective reactive strategy to protect human consumers from acute exposure, but understanding the environmental factors that contribute to the accelerated growth and enhanced toxicity of Pseudo-nitzschia cells will greatly improve
predictive forecasting models and provide a proactive means to minimize the toxic risk to coastal ecosystems. At present there are no reliable measures of the drivers of DA production and its
accumulation by natural Pseudo-nitzschia blooms in the coastal waters of California or its adjacent estuarine regions such as San Francisco Bay (SF Bay) – a system which to date has escaped DA toxic events despite supporting significant populations of Pseudo-nitzschia. Here we propose to use unialgal laboratory cultures to examine the effects of increasing light availability and declining pH levels by using factorial experiments of increasing complexity to understand the impact of these two environmental factors, and their interactions on cellular growth and production of DA by P. australis and P. multiseries – the two most problematic Pseudo-nitzschia species in California coastal waters and the dominant Pseudo-nitzschia species in California’s largest estuary – SF Bay. The insights from this study will include an understanding of which
environmental parameters are valuable predictors of potential DA exposure in coastal ecosystems, and can be used to improve existing forecasting models of Pseudo-nitzschia growth
and toxicity, and thus more effectively characterize the degree of risk of DA toxicity to marine ecosystems, crucial commercial, recreational and subsistence fisheries, and ultimately human

San Francisco$20,0002020-21 Grant Development Program

Strengthening shellfish in an acidified ocean: does co-culture with seaweeds improve shell integrity in farmed abalone and oysters?

deVriesMayaGrant Development Program2020-21

Shellfish aquaculture has become an important contributor to seafood markets on the U.S. West Coast, with the Pacific oyster industry being the largest in the region. Red abalone and Olympia
oysters are native to the West Coast and have a long tradition of harvest. However, wild populations of these native species are suffering, and aquaculture is now the main means of their
production and restoration. Despite the importance of shellfish aquaculture to seafood markets and restoration efforts, there is widespread concern that ocean acidification (OA) threatens future
aquaculture operations. Both oysters and abalone have been shown to be extremely vulnerable to OA, especially as larvae and juveniles, and they exhibit shell damage and reduced growth under OA conditions. Co-culturing shellfish with seaweeds is a proposed method for reducing the negative impacts of OA on shellfish because of the buffering capacity of seaweeds to raise seawater pH. My collaborators at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories have shown that growing red seaweed dulse together with abalone buffers the effects of OA and improves abalone growth. The logical next steps are to 1) integrate oyster aquaculture into this co-culture system, and 2) determine whether the presence of seaweeds in OA conditions will yield abalone and oysters with shells that are stronger and more heavily calcified. To address these objectives, I will apply novel engineering technologies to test the material and mechanical properties of shells in the presence and absence of seaweeds. Given that both their meat and shell have commercial value, addressing these goals will help improve the viability of oyster and abalone aquaculture by making the whole animal more resilient to OA conditions. Ultimately, determining whether
shellfish/seaweed co-culture has positive effects on shell structure could help aquaculture expand to meet the demand for these globally consumed shellfish in and beyond California.​

San José$20,0002020-21 Grant Development Program

Employing quantitative profiling and compositional data analysis techniques to map the effect of rainstorm runoff in coastal microbiomes

BecketElinneKelleyScottGrant Development Program2020-21

​​​Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a global and ecological problem driven by the overuse of antibiotics in clinical, agriculture, and aquaculture applications. Urban and agriculatural runoff introduce antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic contamination to recipient environments. Even far below therapuetic concentrations, antibiotics change microbial community compositions in favor of resistant ecotypes. Additionally, antibiotics trigger the transfer of antibiotic resistant genes (AR genes) between related and unrelated microbes, including between environmental and pathogenic genes. Our long-term goal is to elucidate the movement of AR genes between microbiome members in response to urban runoff following rainstorms. As a major step towards this goal, we have sequenced Southern California coastal microbiome before, during, and after first two 2019-2020 seasonal rainstorms to investigate taxonomic and AR gene profile changes, and we observe cyclical changes to both in response to each rainstorm.​

San MarcosSan Diego$20,0002020-21 Grant Development Program

Geochemistry and Environmental Impacts of Oil Seeps in Coastal Watersheds

HauswirthScottGanguliPriyaGrant Development Program2020-21
We propose to investigate the impact of natural oil seeps and improperly sealed oil wells on the geochemistry and water quality of streams within two coastal watersheds in Southern California. The introduction of oil to aquatic systems presents several hazards. Organic components of oils, such as carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are harmful to humans and aquatic organisms and can degrade ecosystem functions. Less obvious is the potential for direct and indirect increases in the concentrations and transport of heavy metals. Oil contains elevated concentrations of several toxic metals (e.g., vanadium, nickel, lead, and mercury), which can be directly transferred to waterways. Organic compounds present in oil can act as complexation agents, resulting in increased solubilization of metals from sediments. The oil also serves as a carbon source for biodegradation, resulting in a decrease of the redox potential in the sediment, and thereby increasing the mobility of redox-sensitive metals (e.g., arsenic) and contributing to transformations of chemical species that result in increased toxicity and/or bioavailability (e.g., enhanced production of bioaccumulative methylmercury by anaerobic bacteria). To assess the potential for these processes to impact water quality in coastal watersheds, we will sample a series of seeps in Los Angeles and Ventura counties to characterize concentrations of organic (aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs) and inorganic (heavy metals) ​contaminants in oil from these seeps and in downstream waters, soils, and sediments. We will monitor other water quality parameters (pH, redox potential, etc.) as well as nutrients and ion concentrations to assess redox conditions and other geochemical changes.​

NorthridgeNorthridge$20,0002020-21 Grant Development Program

Microplastic ingestion by commercially important fishes

LeighSamanthaGrant Development Program2020-21

Microplastics (MPs) are an emerging pollutant of serious concern. Despite their pervasiveness, we are in the early stages of understanding the full effects of MP pollution on marine organisms. Because MPs are the same size range as microzooplankton and
phytoplankton, they are vulnerable for consumption by marine primary consumers. Some potential effects of MP ingestion include blocked and damaged digestive tracts, the leaching of plastic toxicants, and the introduction of foreign microorganisms; all of which could potentially lead to growth deficits, reproductive issues, and decreased lifespan. This is of particular concern for commercially important species since they represent a critical
dietary and economic resource. In California, over 120,000 people are employed by the seafood industry, which generates over $200 million per year to the state’s economy. Furthermore, over 3 billion people worldwide rely on seafood as their primary protein
source. This is why it is critical to understand how pervasive MP ingestion is by commercially important species. We will be investigating the prevalence of microplastic contamination in two important commercial fish species: the California Halibut
(Paralichthys californicus) and the Pacific (Northern) Anchovy (Engraulis mordax). Using individuals caught from the southern California Bight, we will determine the types and sizes of MPs found in their tissues (digestive tract, liver, and muscle). These fishes
are part of a natural southern California marine food web and will eventually be the focus of a larger study to investigate how MP ingestion and trophic transfer conveys physical MP particles and fibers, plastic-associated toxicants, and microbes. The data collected will be used to inform MP management policy as it relates to California commercial fisheries.

Dominguez Hills$20,0002020-21 Grant Development Program

Quantifying the Effectiveness of Bioretention in Removing Microplastics

Tavakol-DavaniHassanGrant Development Program2020-21

Microplastics (MP) are found ubiquitously in the ocean and coastal waters globally, while the majority of this exponentially growing pollution originate from terrestrial sources, predominantly in the urban land-uses of coastal watersheds. Recent studies show that stormwater runoff may be a significant source of MP in the ocean and coastal waters through frequently discharging high concentrations of MP, in a non-point source manner. After MPs are discharged into the ocean and coastal waters, they are widely circulated and dispersed through flow currents, where they
pose risks to large populations of marine organisms through ingestion. Therefore, before MPs massively enter the ocean, it is critically urgent to design effective measures for MP removal
from stormwater. A popular engineered stormwater treatment measure is called Bioretention, which follows the principles of Green Infrastructure (GI), and thus is the focus of this project.
Specifically, this project will quantify the effectiveness of Bioretention in sequestering MP from stormwater and will determine modifications of Bioretention’s conventional design to address
MP. Our overarching research questions is: How does MP removal process change by varying soil particle size of the media filter of Bioretention? To answer this question, we will perform laboratory experiments to understand the behavior of MP particles mixture in stormwater considering their physical and chemical characteristics. This project will provide the PI with necessary seed funding for generating Preliminary Data to resubmit his previously declined NSF
proposal (#2032026) in the amount of $329,744. Although that proposal received multiple “Very Good” reviews, the panel discussed the lack of information on certain parameters for the proposed experiments and asked for additional measurements. The PI, who is a new investigator with no prior funding from COAST, plans to generate such Preliminary Data through this Grant Development Program.​

San Diego$20,0002020-21 Grant Development Program
collapse Year And Program : 2019-20 Rapid Response Program ‎(1)

Feeding habits of important commercial fishes in the Galapagos Marine Reserve

Marin JarrinJose Rapid Response Program2019-20

Stomach content analysis is a valuable tool to study fish diet and to infer consumer interactions with other species. Isotopic prints are an excellent complement to stomach content analysis, and the use of δ13C and δ15N allows estimation of the trophic amplitude and the trophic level, respectively, of diet.

In Galapagos, the Pacific spotted scorpionfish (Pontinus clemensi) and the ocean whitefish (Cauloatilus princeps) are important demersal commercial fish species and prey items of top predators such as the Galapagos Sea Lion; however, the diet of the fishes themselves is unknown. To better understand the potential impacts of high fishing pressure on the Galapagos food web, we request funds from COAST's Rapid Response Program to test the hypothesis that P. clemensi and C. princeps have non-overlapping diet, trophic level and trophic amplitude in the Western and the Central-southeastern bioregions of Galapagos. Most of the samples for this project have already been collected. There is urgent need to complete this study as many samples were collected and frozen a year ago and may be spoiled because the supply of electric power on the islands is irregular. COAST funding will cover the completion of the collection of samples and laboratory analysis. The project will contribute to COAST's goals of promoting research to advance the knowledge of marine and coastal resources and the processes affecting them in an international scope. It will also support the strategic priority of training students to join a highly skilled, technologically sophisticated workforce and ensure the success of students from all backgrounds. In addition, the project will strengthen collaboration between Humboldt State University and the Ecuadorian institutions of University San Francisco de Quito, Charles Darwin Foundation and Galapagos National Park Directorate. The expected products are a peer-reviewed publication, three undergraduate senior projects and a presentation at a regional conference.​

Humboldt2019-20 Rapid Response Program
collapse Year And Program : 2019-20 Grant Development Program ‎(6)

Seabirds as sentinels of exposure to volatile organic compounds in coastal cities

Bonisoli AlquatiAndreaShafferScottGrant Development Program2019-20
The protection of coastal environments and their people critically depends on the understanding of the environmental sources and fate of harmful contaminants. This is especially the case for densely populated coastal regions, where human activities and industrial operations release large amounts of pollutants. In particular, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have a high potential to bioaccumulate in these systems, thereby causing a variety of adverse health effects in exposed wildlife and people. Seabirds are good sentinels of POPs exposure, due to their high trophic position and their presence in urban ecosystems. Yet their usefulness as sentinels is hindered by our inability to reconstruct their movements and history of exposure to pollutants. The proposed project will characterize exposure to a range of POPs in western gulls (Larus occidentalis) from two breeding colonies off the coast of Central California – offshore Southeast Farallon Islands and coastal Año Nuevo Island. The team will use state-of-the-art passive air sampling devices for atmospheric contaminant coupled with GPS tracking to measure how the use of urban habitats by western gulls from the two colonies to predict their non-dietary exposure to a range of POPs. The team will then further characterize the urban habitat in relationship to socioeconomic factors, and test the hypothesis that the use of habitat. The results of the project will provide crucial information on the distribution of legacy contaminants and contaminants of emerging concern in wildlife using urban coastal habitats and feeding at high trophic level. This will inform future strategies for assessing toxicological risk from exposure to wildlife and humans in coastal ecosystems. Crucially, the project is scalable to other similar gull colonies along the West Coast, including offshore of the major metropolitan areas of San Diego and Los Angeles, where members of the team have an active research program.  ​
PomonaSan José$20,0002019-20 Grant Development Program

Constraining carbon budgets and sedimentation rates in coastal wetlands

CarlinJoesphOikawaPattyGrant Development Program2019-20

​Coastal wetlands provide valuable ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and sediment accretion which help us mitigate and adapt to climate change. However, predicting carbon cycling and sediment accretion in coastal wetlands is challenging as the physical and biological processes regulating these processes vary on sub-annual time scales. We propose to reduce uncertainty in predicting carbon sequestration and sedimentation rates in coastal wetlands using an unprecedented combination of datasets that combines continuous atmospheric carbon cycling measurements with hydrologic carbon fluxes and sub-annual sedimentary carbon deposition. We will collect atmospheric carbon measurements, specifically ecosystem exchange measurements of CO2 and CH4, in a restored wetland in San Francisco Bay. These atmospheric carbon measurements will be paired with continuous measurements of hydrologic exchange of carbon in dissolved and particulate form and sub-annual sedimentation measurements using 7Be, an isotopic tracer with a half-life of 53 days. Combining atmospheric and hydrologic carbon measurements with sub-annual sedimentation measurements will provide an estimate of the net ecosystem carbon budget of the wetland. We will also characterize interannual carbon burial within the wetlands over the time period following restoration.  ​

FullertonEast Bay$19,9902019-20 Grant Development Program

Quantifying water storage and runoff processes in coastal California watersheds through a GEOPATHS hydrological field experience for CSU undergraduates

DralleDavidMcMillanHilaryOshunJasperGrant Development Program2019-20

​We propose a cross-CSU applied field training experience focused on increasing participation in the emerging discipline of Critical Zone Science. Our program will expose students to geological, biological, and hydrologic sciences while improving process understanding of watershed storage and discharge throughout the salmon-supporting streams of coastal California. To fund program development, we will submit to the National Science Foundation’s ​Pathways into Geoscience (GEOPATHS) ​program, which seeks to increase retention of undergraduates in the geosciences by engaging students in novel, career-relevant professional activities. The program also explicitly aims to broaden participation by engaging students from underrepresented minorities (URMs). ​

SacramentoSan DiegoHumboldt$18,7092019-20 Grant Development Program

Ecological mechanisms of carbon export in the California Current resolved by a fleet of autonomous imaging robots 

DurkinColleenCoaleKennethGrant Development Program2019-20

​In the California current, processes that control coastal production and carbon export are changing.  Mechanistic knowledge is needed to predict how changes will affect coastal ecosystems and carbon cycling, but observations that sufficiently resolve these mechanisms, particularly those driven by ecological processes, do not currently exist.  We propose to characterize the seasonal cycle of carbon exported in the mesopelagic by particles sinking out of the California current for the first time, by collecting high resolution, sustained observations of individually-resolved sinking particles using new, in situ imaging floats called MINIONs paired with traditional sediment traps.  We will request funds from the National Science Foundation to seed these neutrally-buoyant floats at a range of depths in the mesopelagic, collecting hourly images of particles passively settling on the float camera surface.  Sinking particle images resolve the quantity and source of sinking carbon, attenuation with depth, and the time period over which export occurs.  Floats will be deployed and recovered in Monterey Bay alongside deployments of a surface-tethered sediment trap used to validate float observations. Our vision to seed the California current with a fleet of autonomous, particle-imaging robots will require development of automated image processing and particle identification methods that can be integrated onboard the float computers.  This development grant will enable us to apply high throughput image processing and machine-learning classifier tools developed by PI Durkin to MINION-collected images and demonstrate the feasibility of our methodological approach. We will also research how to integrate these computational tools directly onboard MINION float computers, making it possible for processed particle flux data to be communicated over satellite, enabling long-term deployment of a large number of floats. ​

San JoséSan José$19,7442019-20 Grant Development Program

Life in the deadzone: examining the impact of caldera formation on planktonic ecology

PietschCarliePortnerRyanGrant Development Program2019-20

​Volcanic systems have played a critical role in the evolution of life on Earth. The energy from hydrothermal fluids represents a source of energy that supported early Earth life and continues to provide for unique and diverse life today. Yet large igneous province eruptions are the main mechanism driving many of Earth’s greatest mass extinction events through global warming, anoxia, and ocean acidification. The scale at which volcanic processes help vs. hinder life on Earth is unclear. This proposal will use previously sampled cores from Axial Seamount to examine how caldera-forming eruptions impacted the overlying water column and sediment substrate. The hypotheses (below) will be evaluated through a combined approach of physical, biological, and chemical characterization of the sediments, including the diversity, abundance, and preservation potential of planktonic and benthic microorganisms. Microorganisms will be identified, quantified, and assessed for signals of deterioration during burial via visual, XRD, and SEM-EDX analyses. LA-ICPMS will be used to determine the hydrothermal fluids that may have contributed to microorganism dissolution. ​

San JoséSan José$19,9182019-20 Grant Development Program

The effect of rocky intertidal foundation species loss on tidepool biogeochemistry and microbiomes 

SilbigerNyssaWegley KellyLindaGrant Development Program2019-20

​Coastal habitats, including rocky intertidal systems are declining globally; understanding the roles of foundation organisms (primary producing macrophytes and calcifying invertebrates) in ecosystem metabolism (net community production and net ecosystem calcification) is critical for evaluating the impacts of shifts in community composition in these environments. Our recent work in these coastal ecosystems highlighted the importance of community composition of foundation species in mediating biological feedbacks involving pH and ecosystem metabolism. Further, our recent documentation of significant diel shifts in both microbial communities and nutrients in coastal marine ecosystems suggest that dynamics of microbial-organic matter interactions on short daily timescales may be a fundamental feature of reefs that play a key role in nutrient recycling. This project will define in situ dynamics of benthic macrophytes (e.g., surf grass) and invertebrates (specifically, the mussel Mytilus californianus) as well as water column microbial communities on ecosystem metabolism (NCP and NEC) and nutrient availability in these economically and environmentally valuable coastal ecosystems.​

NorthridgeSan Diego$19,3222019-20 Grant Development Program
collapse Year And Program : 2018-19 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program ‎(2)

Workshop for the development and application of regionally-specific salmonid bioenergetics models and implications for water management​

BlumenshineSteveShort Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program2018-19

Water management in the U.S. Pacific coast is guided by multiple demands, including
conservation of native and economically important species such as salmon. Managed water
supply to rivers typically dictates water temperatures, which are a key component to fish
bioenergetics, in which metabolism, growth, and survival are dependent upon adequate
temperature regimes. However, Pacific rivers vary greatly in this regard, but researchers
continue to use a common set of bioenergetic parameters to relate energy budgets to water
temperatures among salmonid populations.
We propose a workshop to bring together 20-25 key researchers from universities and
government agencies from the Pacific coast to evaluate the state of bioenergetics modeling for
early life history stages of coldwater fishes, focusing on salmonids. The workshop purpose is to
identify the pressing needs for adapting and applying bioenergetics models to the broad array of
juvenile salmon habitats in their eastern Pacific range (life history stages, outmigration strategies,
populations at biogeographical range extremes). Attendees will comprise experts in fish
physiology, adaptive (genetic) thermal tolerances, ecology, ecosystems, and simulation
modeling, which will allow for translating organismal biology to ecology and modeling. Recent
engagement with these experts ensures keen interest in this topic and a strong commitment to participate.​

Fresno2018-19 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program

​Microplastic Sampling, Processing and Detection Workshop

HollandErikaBonisoli-AlquatiAndreaPaig-TranMistySteeleClareShort Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program2018-19

Microplastic (MP) debris has arisen as a major pollutant class potentially threatening the health
of waterways and global oceans. Numerous studies have documented the presence of MPs
across a range of coastal environments; however, conclusions about corresponding risk have
been hampered by a lack of comparable methods across studies. The requested funding
through COAST will support a two-day workshop on MP standard sampling, extraction, and
detection methodologies to empower California to be the largest region in our country with a
consistent approach to characterizing MP across a wide range of coastal environs. Participants
will gain hands-on experience and knowledge for accurate and cost- and time-effective standard
methods for studying MPs in water, sediment/sand, and biota. In addition to hands-on
experience, our workshop aims to connect COAST faculty and students with California
regulatory and non-profit agencies to foster closer collaboration and to disseminate common MP
sampling and detection methods across research, management and non-profit sectors. These
concerns and the workshop strategy are directly in line with the goals of California’s Ocean
Debris Strategy (2018-2023) and recent California legislation (Senate Bill 1422) aimed at
establishing standard MP methodology especially in relation to recent reports of MP in potable
water. In addition, the workshop supports COAST’s objectives to both equip CSU faculty and
students with state of the science techniques and deepen collaborations between CSU
stakeholders and state policymakers. With the hands-on experience provided by the proposed
workshop, participants will be able to train other faculty, students and staff at their institution and
contribute to MP data collection across the state. This will provide a powerful statewide network
of individuals involved in MP research in order to document the extent of pollution and start
informing future risk assessment models.​

Long BeachChannel IslandsFullertonChannel Islands2018-19 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program
collapse Year And Program : 2018-19 Rapid Response Program ‎(2)
Water Quality Impact of the “Migrant Caravan” Temporary Settlement on the Adjacent Tijuana River & Estuary

SantKariGersbergRichardRapid Response Program2018-19

The Tijuana River and Tijuana River Estuary comprise a binational watershed at the
U.S.-Mexico border. This estuary is home to numerous endangered species and coastal
protection programs lead by international, federal, and state agencies. In late 2018, a “migrant
caravan” from Central America arrived at the Tijuana-San Diego border, attempting to seek
asylum in the United States. According to U.S. policy, a temporary settlement at the Benito
Juarez Sports Complex was established to house the estimated 6,200 asylum seekers at the
Tijuana border. This sports complex is located immediately adjacent to the border, and fewer
than 500 feet from the American Tijuana River. Because sanitation at the facility was deemed
highly inadequate, the objective of this study is to investigate the water quality impacts of this
temporary settlement in the Tijuana River and Estuary.
This research will assess several key water quality parameters over the next 6 months in
the proximal and distal Tijuana River and Tijuana River Estuary. Total coliform and E. coli
concentrations will be quantified at 10 locations (1 upstream) along the California side (nearest
to the settlement) of the Tijuana River and Estuary. Sampling will be conducted monthly for 6
months during and after the primary settlement period. Bacterial DNA will be isolated, and
human fecal marker DNA will be quantified using qPCR of the HF183 human-specific fecal
microbial marker. This work will provide several students the opportunity to conduct field and
laboratory studies in water quality. Overall, this study will directly assess the environmental
consequences of an emergency action plan and policy on the coastal Tijuana River and Tijuana
River Estuary.​

San DiegoSan Diego2018-19 Rapid Response Program

​Pacific Sardines: are microplastics impacting fishery recovery?,

Paig-TranMisty E.Rapid Response Program2018-19

Microplastics (MPs) are an emerging pollutant of serious concern. Despite their pervasiveness,
we are still in the early stages of understanding the full effects of MP pollution on organisms and
marine ecosystems worldwide. MPs are of particular concern because they are the same size
range as microzooplankton and phytoplankton, making them vulnerable for consumption by
marine primary consumers. The most likely consumers of MPs include benthic invertebrates,
macrozooplankton, and filter-feeding fishes. The Pacific sardine is a commercially important
species in California, and sardines are particularly susceptible to ingesting MPs as they are
obligate filter-feeders that sieve through the water column, feeding on phyto and zooplankton.
Ingested MPs may become incorporated into tissues and bioaccumulate up the food chain. The
Pacific sardine fishery is currently in a state of collapse and has shown no signs of recovery.
While the California sardine fishery collapse is attributed to improper fishery management, the
slow rebound may be, in part, attributed to female fish in poor reproductive health. The
consumption of MPs in female sardines prior to the breeding season may negatively impact
reproductive potential, by decreasing the overall fecundity of the fish, impairing oocyte
development due to endocrine disruption, or by shifting the timeline when females are ready to
spawn. This proposal aims to rapidly collect data from a collapsed fishery for use in a MP
focused training workshop. Data will be collected to assess: 1) the presence of microplastics in
the gut; 2) the presence of microplastics in body tissues (muscle, stomach and liver) verifying
that MPs are being assimilated into the body and potentially passed on to human and/or animal
consumers; and 3) the reproductive health of females as they enter the spawning season.​

Fullerton2018-19 Rapid Response Program
collapse Year And Program : 2018-19 Grant Development Program ‎(14)

​Effects of ocean warming and acidification on the interaction between purple urchins and bull kelp

BourdeauPaulTissotBrianBjorkstedtEricGrant Development Program2018-19

​This CSU COAST GDP award will fund preliminary data collection in support of a full proposal to be submitted to the National Science Foundation (NSF) in February 2019. The proposed project described here is a collaboration between Drs. Paul Bourdeau and Brian Tissot at Humboldt State University (HSU) and Eric Bjorkstedt at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and adjunct at HSU, and will form the foundation for a long-term research relationship among these collaborators. Bourdeau is a fourth-year professor currently building his research program at HSU, a Hispanic Serving and Primarily Undergraduate Institution (HSI and PUI), whereas Tissot and Bjorkstedt have successfully involved undergraduate students in federally funded research for almost 44 years between them; at both HSU and other institutions. If funded by NSF, the proposed surveys and experiments will be completed within driving distance from the HSU Marine Lab in Trinidad, CA; for each of three summers. Each summer 4 HSU students (2 graduate and 2 undergraduate students) will spend 12 weeks working in the field and at HSU’s marine lab. In the COAST-supported research, one graduate student and one undergraduate student will be supported on the project including calibrating and deploying field pH sensors and setting up, running, and monitoring CO2 dosing systems for laboratory experiments; surveying organisms in the field and collecting experimental data on organismal responses to warming and acidification in the lab; as well as analyzing and communicating results. This proposed project specifically fulfills the COAST mandate to advance coastal and marine-related research throughout the CSU; enhance research and professional development opportunities for CSU faculty engaged in coastal and marine education and research; promote collaborations; and enhance educational opportunities for CSU students. 

HumboldtHumboldtHumboldt15,6832018-19 Grant Development Program

​Microbiome warfare: the ability of microbes from invasive Sargassum horneri to interfere with kelp recruitment

DinsdaleElizabeth Grant Development Program2018-19

​Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, is a native, iconic species to the southern California coastline. This macroalgae is integral to marine ecosystems and forms dense canopies which shelter the coastline from storms and provide vital habitat and nutrients to countless organisms. However, in recent decades, M. pyrifera kelp forests have thinned substantially and have not recovered to their previous densities. As a result, Sargassum horneri has invaded the open clearings, spread rapidly throughout southern California’s kelp forests, and is now the dominant organism at many sites. Once established, S. horneri may affect the recovery of native kelp by hindering kelp recruitment. We hypothesize that S. horneri inhibits kelp recruitment on multiple levels, which may include; 1) physical obstruction, 2) production of noxious chemicals, and 3) alteration of surrounding microbes, all of which may act independently or synergistically to impair kelp recruits. We have shown that an altered microbial community hinders kelp recruits, and in this investigation we will focus primarily on whether S. horneri employs a microbial strategy in its invasion and spread. We will use a multidimensional approach that combines ecological surveys, laboratory experiments, and metagenomic DNA analysis. First, we will characterize the microbiome of S. horneri and its potential alteration of microbes in the surrounding environment and compare the microbiomes to the native M. pyrifera. The S. horneri-associated microbes will also be used in laboratory experiments to quantify the effects on kelp. Previous studies investigating the effect of invasive species on the health of the surrounding environment and organisms have failed to include microbes, so we will include the underrepresented microbial fraction for a more comprehensive approach to ecology. Understanding the full extent of S. horneri’s invasion mechanisms is a vital step towards eradicating this invasive species and recovering native kelp populations. 

San Diego20,0002018-19 Grant Development Program

​Developing an interdisciplinary approach to assess mercury cycling in coastal lagoon systems: Malibu Lagoon, Southern California

GanguliPriyaBrayErinBramDanielleHughesTylerGrant Development Program2018-19

Along the shoreline of California, coastal lagoons often develop where streams meet the ocean. Because these lagoons receive runoff from their upstream watershed, they are often impacted by agricultural and urban contaminants (e.g., nutrients, sediment, metals). We propose to combine geochemical, geomorphic, and GIS tools to study mercury transport and fate in coastal in Malibu Lagoon, with the goal of creating an assessment approach that can be applied to other West Coast lagoon systems. Additionally, we will evaluate the public’s perception of contaminant hazards to provide insight into how new evidence related to watershed mercury cycling can be included in future remediation efforts. Results from this study will be leveraged to support a large-scale coastal lagoon study that incorporates sites in Northern and Southern California, and expands to include additional physical components (e.g., hydrology, sediment transport modeling), in additional to geochemical and political science considerations. The primary objects of this COAST proposal are to:

1) Design an interdisciplinary system-based approach to assess mercury cycling in coastal lagoons by utilizing geochemical and geomorphic tools, along with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology;

2) Evaluate links between MeHg production and dissolved oxygen concentrations in lagoon water and sediment; investigate how lagoon restoration efforts influence mercury bioavailability; and

3) Evaluate public perception of coastal lagoons with respect to societal benefits, human/ecosystem health, and economic value; assess links between public perception, stakeholder consensus and policy decisions that drive lagoon restoration projects.

NorthridgeNorthridgeNorthridgeNorthridge19,5852018-19 Grant Development Program

​Climate change and marine communities: effects of ocean acidification on ecological interactions in eelgrass habitat

HovelKevinBoyerKatharynGrant Development Program2018-19

​Seagrasses form important habitat for many animals along coastlines worldwide, and provide a variety of key ecosystem services, including the sequestering of dissolved carbon dioxide, a primary driver of ocean acidification (OA). Given the potential for seagrasses to reduce the negative effects of OA on the diverse community of fishes and invertebrates found within these habitats, the State of California has identified the protection and restoration of seagrasses such as eelgrass (Zostera marina) as a critical strategy in enhancing California’s ability to cope with climate change. Seagrasses are not monospecific habitats, however; seagrasses compete for light, nutrients, and space with epiphytic algae that grow on seagrass blades, and macroalgae that grow within seagrass patches. Key factors that mediate this competition include (i) other human impacts such as increased water temperatures, changes in light availability and nutrient loading; and (ii) herbivory by epifaunal mesograzers (small crustaceans and gastropods), whose consumption of epiphytic algae and macroalgae may strongly promote seagrass persistence. It is unknown how either of these factors may influence the relative abundance of seagrass and competing algae subject to OA. In our proposed project we seek to (i) determine the interactive effects of OA, nutrient loading, light, and water temperature on the growth and abundance of eelgrass and algae; and (ii) determine how these factors interactively affect grazing on epiphytes by eelgrass epifauna. We will address these objectives with laboratory experiments in which we establish experimental eelgrass communities (eelgrass, algae, and mesograzers) exposed to discrete combinations of OA, nutrients, light, and temperature. The results of our research will directly inform ongoing efforts by the State of California to determine how regional and global ocean changes may affect key habitats and their ecosystem services, and in turn, how coastal ecosystems may help ameliorate the effects of climate change.

San DiegoSan Francisco19,9782018-19 Grant Development Program

​Investigating the impacts of ocean acidification on natural microbial communities in a nearshore coastal upwelling ecosystem

PasulkaAlexisBockmonEmilyGrant Development Program2018-19

​Anthropogenic carbon dioxide is decreasing ocean pH throughout the world. The vulnerability of the California Current System (CCS) to ocean acidification is amplified by seasonal upwelling in the region. While interest in the impact of ocean acidification on marine organisms has grown, most studies have often focused on single organisms and often on higher trophic levels. An understanding of the impacts on microbial communities is limited, with most previous work focusing on phytoplankton, and less still examining the response of natural phytoplankton assemblages to ocean acidification (OA). Since microorganisms at the base of the marine food-web play important roles in cycling organic matter and nutrients in the ocean, shifts in their community structure and interactions will have cascading impacts on marine ecosystems. In order to address the gaps in our understanding of OA impacts lower trophic levels in coastal upwelling ecosystems, we aim to (1) characterize natural variability in chemistry and lower trophic level community structure over a variety of time-scales from hours to months, (2) develop a small-scale experimental system with controlled chemistry, to characterize shifts in planktonic assemblages in response to variability in carbonate chemistry, and (3) explore the impact of changing CO2 on trophic interactions, particularly microzooplankton grazing. Preliminary data from these experiments will be used to submit an external proposal to NSF (Division of Ocean Sciences) with the additional goals of increasing our experimental scale, examining biogeochemical feedbacks and applying novel “omics” tools to better characterize the impacts of OA on lower trophic levels. The co-located, temporally-resolved chemical and biological measurements coupled with the development of a small-scale system to manipulate natural communities proposed in this project, will provide us an unprecedented view of the impacts of OA on microbial communities and their growth and grazing interactions in an ecologically and economically relevant coastal upwelling ecosystem.

San Luis ObispoSan Luis Obispo19,9902018-19 Grant Development Program

Profiling the methylation landscape of Mytilus californianus genomes

PlaceSeanGrant Development Program2018-19

​The role of DNA methylation is widely understood in vertebrates, however, recent studies reveal an opposing pattern and function for DNA methylation in some invertebrate taxa. In invertebrates, methylation has been observed in coding regions of DNA and is postulated to protect conserved genes, through hypermethylation, from forming transcript variations induced by the environment. Conversely, limited methylation of inducible genes may afford them environmental plasticity by allowing for the creation of alternative transcripts. Absent from prior invertebrate studies are marine intertidal organisms from the rocky intertidal community that experience markedly stressful environments. This study will begin to bridge this knowledge gap and highlight the importance of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in Mytilus californianus and contribute to an emerging awareness of the relevance of these mechanisms in a global climate change framework. Furthermore, until recently, marine invertebrate populations with broad distributions such as M. californianus were thought to harbor little if any locally adapted traits. As such, these populations were expected to rely solely on physiological plasticity to respond to changing environments. Based on this, many efforts to model population level responses have assumed a shared response and physiological limit. More recent studies suggest population level responses of species such as M. californianus may be more varied than once thought despite lacking clear genetic underpinnings for these differences. Compared to classical genetic responses, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation provide an alternative and potentially a more rapid mechanism to induce environmental flexibility and to accrue more favorable phenotypes and could play important roles in establishing locally adapted traits within marine populations. Thus, it is essential to understand the role of these mechanisms in this ecological important coastal species if efforts to predict population level responses are to advance.

Sonoma19,9692018-19 Grant Development Program

​Assessing coastal ocean acoustic health using the metric of humpback whale non-song sounds

StimpertAlisonHarveyJimGrant Development Program2018-19

Expansion of soniferous human activities in the ocean, especially coastally, has elevated the importance of understanding how sound is used by marine animals, and how these species may be affected by additional anthropogenic noise. Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are one of California’s most charismatic coastal visitors, and also have one of the most complex acoustic repertoires in the animal kingdom. While humpback song has been well-studied since the 1970s, non-song sounds have only recently been a focus of acoustic research. Non-song sounds may represent a broader acoustic index for the species since, unlike song, they are produced by both sexes and used year-round in a variety of behavioral contexts. Descriptive research on non-song sounds in feeding and migration areas has recently been published from several humpback populations around the world. Monterey Bay unfortunately remains understudied acoustically, despite its reliable population of humpbacks and easy coastal access. Monterey Bay also represents a baseline for sound production in a quiet environment, as it is relatively less developed or trafficked than many other humpback feeding areas.

We propose to develop an acoustic catalogue of humpback whale non-song sounds in coastal Monterey Bay. COAST funds will support a pilot project using passive acoustic recording and behavioral observation of humpback feeding groups. The Monterey Bay data will be combined with recently established catalogues for Alaska and North Atlantic populations to form the basis of larger proposals that will compare humpback dialects as well as overall sound levels and potential effects of anthropogenic noise in each of the three areas. This research will advance our understanding of animal communication systems and contribute to guidelines for assessing effects of noise on marine species. The project will also provide leadership opportunities and summer support for one graduate student and field experience and research projects for two undergraduate interns.

San JoséSan José19,7952018-19 Grant Development Program

​Genomic diversification and speciation along ecological gradients in a marine species flock​

AguilarAndresGrant Development Program2018-19
Understanding speciation in the marine environment has proven to be a challenging task for evolutionary biologists. The potential for high levels of gene flow and the apparent lack of geographical barriers creates a scenario where ecological diversification and life history shifts may be important in the speciation process. We are proposing to study molecular evolution at the genomic scale to better understand the mechanisms of speciation in a diverse group of marine fishes. Rockfishes (Sebastes) are a diverse group of temperate fishes that inhabit a wide array of habitats, are live-bearing, and have been subject to numerous phylogenetic studies. Previous work has revealed that a number of species pairs in the genus Sebastes are depth segregated. We will use this natural set of repeated experiments to identify genomic regions related to the invasion of novel habitats. Whole genome resequencing and comparison of species pairs will allow us to identify shared genomic regions of divergence in this group. 
Los Angeles15,5382018-19 Grant Development Program

​Effects of hypoxia on nursery function for fishes in coastal estuaries: investigating mechanisms and developing indicators

HamiltonScottConnollyTomLoganCherylGrant Development Program2018-19
Estuaries serve as nursery grounds for commercially important fish species. However, this valuable ecosystem service is threatened by anthropogenic impacts from eutrophication, hypoxia, climate change and habitat alteration. Past research in California estuaries has suggested that increasing hypoxia may impair nursery function for commercially and ecologically important fish species, however the mechanistic underpinnings and thresholds at which these negative effects manifest, are unknown for most species. Our collaborative multi-campus team combines expertise in population and community ecology, climate change science, ecophysiology, molecular techniques, and oceanography to address these questions in an interdisciplinary capacity. We are requesting funding from the COAST Grant Development Program to facilitate preliminary data collection efforts to support the development of future proposals to agencies such as California Sea Grant, the National Science Foundation, NGOs supporting conservation efforts (e.g., National Fish and Wildlife Foundation), and other private foundations. A major focus of this proposal and our future proposals will be to investigate the mechanisms that determine the impacts of hypoxia on juvenile fishes in their nursery habitat through: (1) in situ field experiments testing growth, survival, and physiological responses of fish across a natural gradient and fluctuations in dissolved oxygen levels and (2) controlled laboratory studies on behavioral, physiological, and molecular responses of juvenile fishes to hypoxia. An adaptive sampling approach will link field and laboratory assays in order to develop indicators of hypoxia stress, from the cellular to organismal level, which will inform management targets for restoring nursery function. Finally, field experiments will be developed to examine potential measures to mitigate the effects of hypoxia in coastal estuaries by investigating the effects of eelgrass/seagrass restoration on oxygen dynamics and the subsequent physiology, growth, and survival of juvenile fishes. 
San JoséSan JoséMonterey Bay19,8202018-19 Grant Development Program

​Exploring metabolic compensation in response to temperature in the intertidal copepod, T. californicus

MuellerCaseyGrant Development Program2018-19
Temperature acclimation occurs on various time scales, and animals living in the variable intertidal environment often show metabolic compensation resulting in temperature-independent metabolism. Yet, the mechanisms behind metabolic compensation are largely unexplored. The overarching objective of this proposal is to provide the first comprehensive study of metabolic responses to temperature in an intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus, a species found in distinct populations across a 3000 km geographical range along the Pacific coast. Aim 1 will investigate the time-course, limits, and mechanisms of metabolic compensation in adults in response to temperature increase. Oxygen consumption rate (VO2) will be measured immediately following temperature changes of various magnitudes (5°C to 15°C) and during the 2 to 48 h following. Preliminary measurement of metabolic enzyme activity and gene expression will occur during the same time course to assess potential mechanisms of metabolic compensation. Aim 2 will examine developmental responses to temperature by determining whether the developmental thermal environment has long-term effects on adult metabolic compensation. Development rate, survival and morphology of T. californicus will be examined during rearing at 20, 25 and 30°C. Adult metabolic compensation ability will be assessed following rearing at these temperatures to explore the link between the developmental thermal environment and adult function. These responses will be examined across four genetically distinct populations to explore possible latitudinal patterns in thermal responses. Achievement of these aims will provide vital preliminary data for a NSF proposal.
San Marcos20,0002018-19 Grant Development Program

​Acquisition of oceanographic instrumentation for a shipboard ocean observing system to support novel, long-term oceanographic research and education in the California State University System

ParkerAlexanderRandolphKaylanCifuentes-LorenzenAlejandroWelschmeyerNickGrant Development Program2018-19
​The CSU Maritime Academy (Cal Maritime) is in an ideal position to meaningfully advance oceanographic research and education in the CSU, a critical COAST priority, through the integration of a shipboard ocean observing system into pre-existing open-ocean and funded (new) coastal ocean infrastructure. Strong institutional support for Cal Maritime based oceanographic research and education, existing campus infrastructure (vessels, waterfront facilities) and extensive expertise of personnel at Cal Maritime will support the implementation of advanced deployment strategies and measurements, allowing the observing system to capture oceanographic phenomena at novel scales. Furthermore, the high frequency of undergraduate training cruises and open availability of campus vessels allows for repeated, long-term data collection from various platforms, leading to the generation of a robust dataset, a critical resource for advancing scientific knowledge, and supporting the educational system and informed decision-making. 

Faculty in the Departments of Sciences and Mathematics and Engineering, staff at the Golden Bear Research Center, with the support of all schools at Cal Maritime, propose to create the shipboard ocean observing system to fulfill three broad objectives. First, the system will enable novel research efforts by a group of multidisciplinary oceanographers at Cal Maritime, including investigations of subsurface turbulence using novel optical approaches and traditional methods for measuring gas, momentum and energy transfer across the air-sea interface; measuring phytoplankton and bacterial dynamics, food web impacts, and the role of nutrients in marine ecosystem function. Second, the system will foster multidisciplinary collaborative research efforts among marine scientists and their students across all CSU campuses. Finally, the system will provide an enhanced science-based education for undergraduate students by incorporating a hands-on oceanographic training program (i.e. deployment and operation of instrumentation and the retrieval, analysis and communication of oceanographic data and results) grounded in the basic sciences.
Maritime AcademyMaritime AcademyMaritime AcademySan José17,0852018-19 Grant Development Program

​Locomotor and feeding morphology and performance of the salt marsh harvest mouse and coexisting wetland rodents

SustaitaDiegoPrattR. BrandonGrant Development Program2018-19
This study is aimed at understanding how endangered salt marsh harvest mice (Reithrodontomys raviventris) are adapted to their wetland environments. Previous studies have revealed ecological and physiological specializations that allow these mice to thrive in their salt marsh habitats. Here we test for potential biomechanical specializations that reflect their feeding and locomotor abilities, through measurements of their morphology, biting, climbing, and swimming performance, and fitness. Furthermore, other species are often captured in the same habitats, and it is unclear how these more ecologically generalized forms differ in their abilities to navigate physically demanding wetland environments. Therefore, we will also compare morphology and performance among coexisting species to determine whether biomechanical differences among them might facilitate niche partitioning. We request COAST funding to secure preliminary data to strengthen our NSF proposal. 

This study will uncover the fitness consequences and evolutionary responses to selection on performance and underlying morphological traits of the salt marsh harvest mouse. As a result, it encompasses the foci of disparate NSF IOS Physiological and Structural Systems cluster programs (e.g., Physiological Mechanisms and Biomechanics Program and Integrative Ecological Physiology Program). Because of their importance to fundamental life functions, understanding biting, climbing, and swimming abilities is critical for predicting salt marsh harvest mouse success in light of vegetation and hydrological changes due to management practices and the effects of global climate change. 

California State Universities San Marcos and Bakersfield are Hispanic Serving Institutions with strong traditions of involving undergraduate and graduate underrepresented minority students in all levels of academic research. Each of the project dimensions described in our working NSF proposal (morphology, performance, genetics, ecology, and evolution) encompasses the scope of a Master’s and/or senior thesis project, and as such, will provide opportunities for several graduate and undergraduate students.
San MarcosBakersfield19,9102018-19 Grant Development Program

​Exchange processes between river plume and the continental shelf waters

MazziniPieroGrant Development Program2018-19

​River plumes are a major component of the circulation of continental shelves, they are the primary link between estuaries and the coastal ocean, and can influence regions hundreds of kilometers away from their origins. In the far-field, the leading edge or “nose” of the plume has been considered the region where most mixing and exchange with the continental shelf happens. Yet, few observations have been conducted to better understand the dynamics of this region, especially with proper resolution to fully resolve these complex features. Despite the fact that they are under surveyed, there is observational evidence, which suggests that the far-field region of river plumes can induce the cross-shelf transport in the coastal ocean as the nose propagates along the coast. The mechanisms responsible for this are still poorly understood, as well as the how waters are mixed and entrained into the plume. This could play a major role in the transport of larvae, nutrients and sediments between the inner-shelf and offshore waters. Motivated by these previous, yet scarce, observations, I propose to use sophisticated ocean numerical modeling techniques to conduct preliminary investigation on the impact of the passage of river plumes on the continental shelf circulation. The goals of this project are to characterize the three-dimensional circulation forced by the nose of the plume, quantify the exchange between inner-shelf and offshore waters due to frontal passes, estimate the mixing and entrainment of shelf waters into the plume and investigate the dominant momentum balances under a range of discharge conditions. The results obtained here will provide a theoretical framework to motivate new measurements in the far-field region of a river plume, which may play a crucial role on the cross-shelf exchange of nutrients, larvae, pollutants and sediments, and therefore impact the marine ecosystems.​

San Francisco19,6652018-19 Grant Development Program

​Can a Water-Energy-Food Nexus approach mitigate seawater intrusion in California's coastal aquifer system?

GurdakJasonGrant Development Program2018-19
​How will California’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) mitigate seawater intrusion (SWI) and reduce statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from California’s coastal aquifer system? This project is the first to test the hypothesis that the implementation of SGMA and a water-energy-food (WEF) Nexus approach will help identify management plans to simultaneously mitigate local SWI and reduce statewide GHG emissions before SGMA’s implementation target in 2040. To test this hypothesis, the project leverages concepts from the WEF Nexus and SGMA to develop an easy-to-use method and practical, on-line calculator program that groundwater managers, researchers, and other stakeholders can use to mitigate SWI and reduce California’s GHG emissions.

Climate change effects on groundwater resources in California’s coastal aquifer system is a well-recognized and urgent concern. Groundwater plays a critical role in sustaining coastal ecosystems, supporting agriculture, and enabling California’s adaptation to climate change. The strategic importance of coastal groundwater to California’s food and energy security will intensify under climate change and sea-level rise. However, the reliable characterization of the feedbacks from management activities to mitigate SWI on GHG emissions is complicated by the complex nature of the WEF Nexus. Our novel project will be the first to develop methods and estimate net changes in GHG emissions from the implementation of coastal management strategies to mitigate SWI within SGMA. 

The project will greatly improve local ability to mitigate SWI and reduce GHG emissions during SGMA implementation. The proposed multidisciplinary research approach will promote meaningful engagement and integrate different knowledge systems from a range of stakeholders, and help translated research findings into policy, practice, and climate action. The project creates a rich network for discovery and learning by partnering graduate and undergraduate students at SFSU with local stakeholders at several pilot SGMA Groundwater Sustainability Agencies (GSAs) across California’s coast.
San Francisco19,9642018-19 Grant Development Program
collapse Year And Program : 2017-18 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program ‎(1)

Science Communication Training with COMPASS at the Romberg Tiburon Center (RTC)

HinesEllenNielsenKarinaShort Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program2017-18

​We propose a professional development workshop to enhance the science communication and engagement skills of CSU faculty and students affiliated with COAST. Performing cutting-edge research is necessary, but no longer sufficient to solve the complex environmental issues confronting coastal zones and oceans. Scientists at all stages of their careers benefit from professional development to help them stretch beyond traditional academic communication norms. Science communication and engagement trainings are not often made available to CSU faculty and students. This workshop has been collaboratively scoped with the COMPASS Science Communications team to address the needs of CSU faculty and students, and will be led by the COMPASS team. COMPASS will organize and execute a moderated plenary session with several invited journalists, a one-day science communication training involving one COMPASS staff and up to four journalist/policy trainers, and a 2-hr Message Box Session for invited students. The workshop will be held at San Francisco State’s Romberg Tiburon Center and provide practical support for scientists to enhance their engagement with journalists, policymakers, the public, and even other scientists! This event will empower participants with professional tools, techniques and real-world connections to share their work, help meet the strategic goals of COAST and communicate the value of CSU research and education programs.

San FranciscoSan Francisco100002017-18 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program
collapse Year And Program : 2017-18 Rapid Response Program ‎(4)

​Verification of the vocalizations in ​Giant Sea B​​ass, Stereolepis gigas​

AllenLarryRapid Response Program2017-18

​​​​In his recently completed thesis, my former student, Brian Clark, reported on aspects of the reproductive behavior of Giant Sea Bass, Stereolepis gigas, which were successfully observed and described at Goat Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, CA from June 2014 to August 2015. This site was visited daily during the summer months, which is the assumed spawning season and aggregations were not present during the spring and fall months. As part of that study, we concluded that Giant Sea Bass (or Giants) produced booming sounds, which were often associated with aggressive behavior, but may also be associated with spawning activity. This booming sound was verified in the field as being produced by Giants with paired video and audio recordings on three occasions. These low frequency “booms” ranged from 50 to 80 Hz. In addition, “drum roll chorusing” sounds were recorded within the Giant Sea Bass aggregation site at two different frequencies, 250 Hz and 350 Hz. These sounds, coincided with peak activity (1900-2100 hrs.) of the Giants when the fish are moving about the water column rather than remaining stationary near the substratum. These “drum roll” vocalizations have not yet been linked directly to Giants, a fact that greatly limits our interpretation of their mating behavior. Simply put, the immediate goal of this proposal is to verify whether these sounds are produced by Giant Sea Bass.

Northridge$7,5002017-18 Rapid Response Program42

Emergency rescue, digitization and dissemination of the Peter Fischer marine geophysical data collection​​

BehlRichardFrancisRobertRapid Response Program2017-18

We propose to establish a digital community archive of acoustical and other data collected along the southern California coast. In May 2017, the CSU Long Beach Department of Geological Sciences acquired a large collection of marine geophysical and other data collected in the coastal zone from San Diego to Santa Maria from the 1970s to 2010. Due to current restrictions on seismic data collection in State offshore waters and cost/time considerations, it is highly unlikely that this voluminous data bank could ever be replicated in the future. Thousands of acoustical data records, large format maps, reports and other data currently occupy more than 100 ft2 of space and need to be digitized. The paper data and maps cannot be stored indefinitely and without digitization, these valuable data will be lost. This project will preserve, digitize, and make available these data in the form of a community archive that will be freely available to all interested scientists and the public. These data, especially when combined with other datasets, can be used to test and verify hypotheses of fault evolution, fault interaction during earthquakes, tsunami generation, and more that help refine coastal seismic hazard evaluations. The high-resolution acoustic images of sand packages can help in assessing models of sediment transport on beaches, coastal ecosystems, and other places. Our fully equipped computer lab with large-format chart scanners and GIS, 3D visualization and other data-logging software will be used to digitize the historical data. Students will participate in cataloging and digitization processes, which will introduce them to different types of geophysical data and the methods by which they are obtained. Students will observe maps of the California coastal zone, and become familiar with many of the geologic and geographic features. ​

Long BeachLong Beach$7,1012017-18 Rapid Response Program2642186

​The ecological impact of dredging in Morro Bay​​

ReeceJoshuaWeinmanBethWaseklovKateRapid Response Program2017-18

​Morro Bay is a small bay and estuary at the northern edge of California’s southern coast. It includes a manmade causeway that connects Morro Rock, a prominent volcanic feature in the region, with the small town (approximately 10,000 residents) of Morro Bay. The two largest industries in Morro Bay are ecotourism and fishing. Due to the manmade causeway, the entrance to Morro Bay requires minor dredging annually and major dredging every six to seven years. The most recent major dredging project began in December 2016 and ended February 28, 2017. The project moved 240,000 cubic yards of dredge spoil material to adjacent beach at the mouth of Morro Creek, ostensibly to nourish the beach. The PI observed this effluent during and after pumping and was extremely concerned about the consistency and quality of the dredge spoil and the impact of the beach nourishment project on local wildlife. This project was considered exempt from a formal environmental impact assessment by the Army Corps of Engineers and no post-dredging monitoring was included in the project. We sampled sediments immediately at the end of the pumping period, and we propose 12 months of additional sampling post-nourishment. Our goals are to assess the impact of the nourishment on the beach in four dimensions: 1) invertebrate, 2) plant, and 3) bird biodiversity as well as 4) sediment characteristics and stratigraphy. Sediment quality will be compared to reference sites north and south of the nourishment area and will include grain size, bulk chemical analysis, and stratigraphy of beach sediments. Our sampling directly incorporates students into the research and seeks to make research products that can help local communities such as Morro Bay design optimal dredging and nourishment projects that minimize ecological impacts.​​​

FresnoFresnoFresno$7,5002017-18 Rapid Response Program27142483

​Post-wildfire vegetation recovery and sediment change of a coastal California watershed

KinoshitaAliciaRapid Response Program2017-18

​This research focuses on vegetation recovery and sediment processes in a southern California watershed after wildfire, which can impact coastal landforms, water quality, and estuarine habitats. There is a need to monitor significant natural events to understand the impact of sediment delivery on ocean coastline habitats and dynamics. Current approaches of estimating sediment do not include the effects of wildfire processes in steep coastal watersheds, and may result in inaccurate coastal sediment budgets. In light of changing climate and increased frequencies and magnitudes of wildfires, information that can improve traditional coastal sediment budgets is needed. Altered post-wildfire vegetation and sediment patterns following the 2013 Springs Fire in southern California were documented in Big Sycamore Canyon in water years (WY) 2013 and 2014. The variability in response highlights the importance of collecting reach-scale data to monitor vegetation and volume changes (deposition and erosion), which contributes sediment to downstream estuary and coastal areas. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides high spatial and temporal resolution data and will document vegetation recovery and post-fire sediment deposition or erosion that occurred during the WY 2017 winter storms. This information will be lost during the onset of the WY 2018 storm season when sediment may become mobilized. This COAST Rapid will support LiDAR collection in Fall 2017 to quantify the total volume of channel material removed from the headwaters and transported to the estuary at the mouth of Big Sycamore Canyon. LiDAR will enhance our ability to document inter-relationships among vegetation re-growth that stabilizes sediment on hillslopes and sediment supply and facilitate initial coupling of vegetation and sediment interactions. The proposed project will strengthen existing and future endeavors with researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara and integrate research and education by involving students from San Diego State University.

San Diego75002017-18 Rapid Response Program2667
collapse Year And Program : 2017-18 Grant Development Program ‎(8)

​Remote forcing of seasonal currents in the California Current System

ConnollyThomasGrant Development Program2017-18
The California Current System (CCS) serves as a confluence of water masses with diverse physical and biogeochemical characteristics, representing a broad range of sources throughout the Pacific Ocean. Although a great deal of past research has been devoted to characterizing this part of the ocean, the physical mechanisms that drive seasonal currents remain elusive. For example, multiple theories have been proposed for the generation of poleward currents that flow opposite to the direction of the prevailing wind. The roles of different physical processes that transmit coastal energy to offshore regions are also unknown. This study investigates the theory that remote winds as far away as the equator drive seasonal variability in the CCS, both near the coast and far offshore.

The goal of this study is to conduct a synthesis of existing long-term data sets to 1) detect evidence of remote forcing at seasonal time scales in the CCS, 2) identify key sites where the remote forcing process is interrupted, and 3) create an experimental design for a focused process study in the field. Historically, a full mechanistic understanding of seasonal dynamics in the CCS has been limited the lack of high-resolution, long-term observations over large distances. In the modern era of oceanography, a network of ocean observing systems provides an opportunity to overcome these challenges, while providing context for process-oriented field studies. This project, and future research that builds on it, will use measurements from multiple observing platforms, including autonomous underwater gliders which resolve a ranger of spatial scales over the course of long-duration missions. The work will benefit COAST by providing training opportunities for CSU students in advanced oceanographic instrumentation, ocean observing system cyber-infrastructure and the analysis of large, complex data sets.​
San José19,7522017-18 Grant Development Program2668

UCEs for CSUs: A metazoan target-capture panel of ultraconserved elements for use in seascape genetics

CrandallEricGrant Development Program2017-18

​California’s groundbreaking network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) was designed to conserve habitats and communities of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem by providing stepping-stones of protected habitat that are assumed to be connected, for most species, by planktonically dispersing larvae. However, although there has been much research effort invested in monitoring nearly every aspect of individual MPAs, there are currently no existing initiatives to evaluate the realized connectivity of the network. Seascape genetic methods promise to provide such an evaluation, yet have fallen short in the past due to theoretical issues surrounding large population sizes and high genetic diversity in marine populations, as well as practical challenges such as genetic marker development and coordinated multi-species sampling effort. The proposed project seeks to address these issues by developing a “universal” panel of genetic markers anchored at genomic elements that are conserved across the diversity of animal phyla (ultraconserved elements; UCEs). A panel of such markers would be broadly useful for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, allow easy comparison across species, and would facilitate undergraduate research due to their relative ease of use and broad applicability. UCEs would also lend themselves nicely to analysis with a family of population genetic methods called coalescent models, which I have shown to be more powerful for evaluating marine population structure than traditional methods based on summary statistics. The UCE panel together with the preliminary data and analysis that result from this work will be used in multi-CSU campus proposals to NSF and California Sea Grant that would combine biophysical modeling of larval dispersal with coalescent modeling to test the hypothesis that California’s MPAs contain distinct ecological populations that are connected by direct dispersal of larvae.​

Monterey Bay19,9772017-18 Grant Development Program2736

​Evaluating genetic responses to fishery selection in two Southern California fishes

JohnsonDarrenGrant Development Program2017-18
​Fishing is one of the main ways in which humans have altered coastal ecosystems. In addition to removing biomass, it is suspected that fishing may cause rapid evolution in fished populations. Although it is easy to envision fishing as a source of Darwinian selection, we need firm evidence of genetic changes in fished populations. We also need to know how quickly gene frequencies can change in response to fishing.

This project seeks funding to search for genetic markers associated with boldness and aggression – two behavioral traits that are expected to be major targets of fishery selection. Recent advances in restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) have made it cost effective to identify thousands of variable markers at loci interspersed throughout the genome. I will use RADseq and laboratory assays of behavior to look for genetic markers associated with boldness and aggressiveness in both kelp bass – a predatory fish that is the target of a large recreational fishery in Southern California – and black surfperch – a representative prey species. Much behavioral variation exists among individuals of our study species, and our previous work suggests that heritable variation in behavior exists for black surfperch (and is likely for other fishes too).

This work will form the basis for a larger proposal to the National Science Foundation. Once we have identified a set of genetic markers associated with behavior, we will propose a study that tests for fishery-induced evolution by examining how the allele frequencies of these markers change over time (by comparing frequencies in old vs. young fish) and along a spatial gradient of fishing pressure. By measuring how quickly fishing can change the genetic and phenotypic composition of populations, we will be able to anticipate changes in the functioning of fish populations and we will be able to manage coastal ecosystems more effectively.​
Long Beach12,2452017-18 Grant Development Program2577

Preliminary data for an NSF-DEB collaborative proposal: using phylogenomics to resolve the evolutionary origin of air-breathing molluscs

KrugPatrickValdésÁngelEernisseDouglasGrant Development Program2017-18

​Aside from insects, air-breathing snails and slugs (pulmonates) comprise the most species-rich radiation of animals that evolved from a marine ancestor. However, the events and trait changes leading to this explosive diversification of >30,000 species remain unclear; neither studies using handfuls of genes from hundreds of species, nor hundreds of genes from handfuls of species, have resolved the evolutionary branching at the base of the pulmonates. We will collect preliminary genomic data to support an NSF-DEB pre-proposal, demonstrating we have the samples needed, and can collect the necessary data, to resolve this evolutionary puzzle. Our team combines experts funded by NSF-DEB who study Sacoglossa, photosynthetic sea slugs (Krug and Valdes), and Siphonarioidea, false limpets (Eernisse); one (or both together) likely comprises the sister group of pulmonates, but which one remains unclear. Moreover, our work has shown that deep evolutionary relationships within Sacoglossa and Siphonarioidea require genomic data to resolve, and many species remain to be described. We propose to use cutting-edge exon-capture techniques and next-generation DNA sequencing to generate five transcriptomes, and then to obtain sequences for 500 nuclear genes from ethanol-preserved tissues of 10 sacoglossan and two siphonariid genera. This will demonstrate (i) that we can generate and analyze phylogenomic data, and (ii) that combined with existing pulmonate sequences, our project will resolve relationships across this critical gastropod radiation. These data will support a full NSF proposal requesting support to sequence the remaining 24 sacoglossan and 2 siphonariid genus-level lineages plus outgroups. COAST funds ($20,000) will support generating and analyzing DNA sequence data, with a pre-proposal submitted to NSF-DEB by Jan 23, 2018. Our project will address major goals of DEB by (1) clarifying the evolutionary origins of Pulmonata and its key traits, (2) providing new systematic frameworks for Sacoglossa and Siphonarioidea, and (3) describing over 50 new species. ​

Los AngelesPomonaFullerton20,0002017-18 Grant Development Program206190176
Development of novel polymer-based processes for water separation and energy recovery​
LiMinghengGrant Development Program2017-18
This proposal aims to investigate hydrogels and stimuli responsive polymers for water separation and energy recovery. It will use the knowledge developed by chemists, material scientists, and chemical engineers to answer fundamental and applied research questions on the integration of hydrogels in advanced water treatment, desalination and energy recovery utilizing an environmental engineering approach. Specifically, the proposal will take the current state of the art in hydrogel materials and engineer a device and a process for desalination and energy recovery. The process will include consideration to minimize energy expenditure and maximize resource recovery.

The proposed research has the potential to disrupt the desalination and CO2 recovery industry by developing two novel processes centered on stimuli responsive hydrogels. This research will distinguish itself from previous experimental and theoretical stimuli responsive hydrogel studies in several ways. For the first time, an integrated approach to coordinately develop a research platform from material to process will be developed. This project will also explore the system-scale integration, using techno-economic parameters. This project will fund research positions for several undergraduate students.
Pomona12,3902017-18 Grant Development Program2741

​Chemical tracers of human activities and ecological associations in California vernal pools

Miller-SchulzeJustinKneitelJamieGrant Development Program2017-18

​The effects of anthropogenic activities, such as pollutants, on water quality are important to assess because they can have extensive effects on human and ecosystem health. Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) are a broad class of compounds that include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, illicit drugs, herbicides and pesticides. Their “emerging concern” is indicated by the fact that measurements are being made but they are not currently regulated. Many freshwater ecosystems in California, such as wetlands, have not been assessed for CECs and its association with ecosystem health. Our proposal will address this gap by quantifying CECs in California vernal pools under different land use practices. Vernal pools are seasonal wetlands or ponds that support numerous endangered and threatened species. Vernal pools represent greatly reduced habitat (< 10% remain), and this remaining habitat is found in a matrix of urban and agricultural development. Consequently, vernal pools may be especially susceptible as a recipient of CECs. In addition, vernal pools represent the upper watershed of the Central Valley and the Sacramento River, and as such are hydrologically connected to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta and San Francisco Bay. Assessing the relevant sources of water quality impact on vernal pool ecosystems through CEC measurement will also allow assessment of the relevance of specific sources on coastal ecosystem health due to this hydrological connection. The research proposed by PIs Miller-Schulze and Kneitel will be focused on collecting preliminary data on CEC concentrations and associate them with local land use, vernal pool size characteristics, water physico-chemistry (e.g., phosphates, nitrates, conductivity), and aquatic invertebrate and plant density and diversity. This will be the basis for developing competitive research proposal for the National Science Foundation. Graduate and undergraduate students from Departments of Chemistry and Biological Sciences will be included in this research, interact collaboratively, and disseminate results.​

SacramentoSacramento17,6312017-18 Grant Development Program26431744

​Contaminant-selective sponges for removal of ocean toxins

SoMonicaLiuYangyangGrant Development Program2017-18

​Seawater contaminated with high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) poses an alarming threat to the health of humans and marine mammals. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g. bisphenol A) and carcinogens (e.g. dyes and phthalic acids) are typical POPs that must be removed from seawater. One approach for removal of POPs from water involves using an adsorbent to soak up and remove pollutants. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) offer a “sponge-like” platform for seawater remediation, since they are structurally and chemically diverse and highly porous materials that are constructed from metal nodes bridged by organic ligands. However, no experimental studies have investigated the adsorption mechanisms of POPs within MOF membranes. This is critical to improving selectivity of POPs for seawater remediation. In this project, we propose to (a) monitor the effects of varying the metal cations on acid-base interactions, (b) change the functional groups on organic ligands and observe resulting hydrogen bonding interactions, and (c) vary the chemical functionality as a function of layers on chemical adsorption. Specifically, we will: (1) use a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor the growth of MOFs; (2) probe film composition, morphology, crystallinity, and thickness using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, surface/cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction; and (3) collect QCM data to probe chemical adsorption properties. If successful, this work will elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption in MOFs, and provide insight into some structure-property relations that are important for chemical adsorption in MOF membranes. Importantly, this work will elucidate design criteria for MOF “sponges” for removal of POPs, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, from seawater.​

ChicoLos Angeles19,0302017-18 Grant Development Program27322746

​Mapping social modifications to the natural estuarine environment in Alamitos Bay, Southern California

SullivanKathleenWhitcraftChristineGrant Development Program2017-18

​We are requesting funds to support the development of a USC Sea Grant grant proposal seeking funds to develop a prototype GIS geospatial visualization learning tool demonstrating the ways in which human construction and development have altered Alamitos Bay, Long Beach, California, through time. USC Sea Grant has expressed interest in our grant application to their program. The first step in this process entails the organization and preliminary analysis of historic land use data for Alamitos Bay, identification of temporal and spatial data gaps, and assessment of the utility of historic aerial photographs. Alamitos Bay is a significant urban, permanently open mouth estuarine system evincing a wide range of urban human uses. Our long term goal is to expand the prototype to include other estuaries in the network of estuaries integral to the southern California Bight. Using COAST funds, we will: 1) Remunerate two CSULA graduate students to help organize and assess the existing collection of historic maps and photographs already assembled by Sullivan’s undergraduate methods classes; 2) Building on #1, develop and submit a proposal to USC Sea Grant for funds to create a prototype visualization geospatial learning tool. Our COAST GDP application is an interdisciplinary (anthropology and marine biology) collaboration between faculty from CSULA and CSULB, and our larger grant effort will expand that collaboration by including scientists from Southern California Water Resources Project (SCWRP), strengthening both the interdisciplinary aspect and GIS expertise of the project. Our project is original in that it organically integrates estuary science and social science, emphasizes the temporal dimensions of spatial change, emphasizes urbanization, and utilizes geospatial visualization modeling as the basis of a digital learning tool. The content and methodology of our learning tool will set it apart as unique among an emerging catalog of digital environmental applications.

Los AngelesLong Beach18,5062017-18 Grant Development Program2364102
collapse Year And Program : 2016-17 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program ‎(1)

Development of a Sustainability Index for California’s Beaches: A Workshop

PatschKierstenKingPhilipShort Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program2016-17

​This COAST grant will facilitate a two-day workshop, sponsored by CSU Channel Islands, with the goal of constructing a Beach Sustainability Index (BSI), an objectively derived quantitative score based on readily available data or standardized observation. The BSI will accommodate the varying taxonomy of beach habitats across coastlines. We will bring together researchers, NGOs and stakeholders involved with policy/management to discuss how coastal ecosystem functions goods and services can be assessed/evaluated.​

Channel IslandsSan Francisco10,0002016-17 Short Course, Workshop and Symposium Funding Program27072257
collapse Year And Program : 2016-17 Rapid Response Program ‎(4)

​Establishing the age class and health status of fall congregations of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the coastal waters of Central California and the Santa Barbara Channel, using aerial photogrammetry

CartwrightRachel GillespieBlake Rapid Response Program2016-17

​The highly productive waters of the Central California coastline and the Santa Barbara Channel serve as a key feeding ground for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Eastern North Pacific. Essentially, the region represents the southern-most extent of their feeding range along the western seaboard; typically, humpback whales feed in the region from early spring through late fall. Foraging opportunities during the fall may be particularly important, potentially representing a final opportunity for whales to build up energy reserves prior to migration to nutrient-impoverished breeding regions. In this study, we will compile surface photography and use a small UAV to gather aerial imagery of these fall aggregations of humpback whales. Surface photography will be used to identify whales, through the comparison of fluke markings to known fluke ID catalogues. Aerial images will be used to determine body morphometrics, establish age class and assess body condition in the individuals that make up these seasonal groups. As this population is currently under consideration for down-listing, potentially leading to loss of their protected status, this new information will provide timely, baseline details for use in future health assessments. Furthermore, as body condition potentially influences migratory behavior, detecting and describing body condition and associated health status of whales within this spatial and temporal window, immediately preceding their departure for the breeding grounds, may also inform our understanding of recently reported basin-wide anomalies in humpback whale migratory behavior during the 2016 El Nino event. 

Channel IslandsChannel Islands$7,4002016-17 Rapid Response Program2083173
​Long term changes in soft coral communities on shallow coral reefs
EdmundsPeterRapid Response Program2016-17

​This proposal seeks Rapid Response funding for the 2017 sampling of a time-series analysis describing soft corals on shallow reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands. The intellectual merit of the project lie in addressing how coral reefs will change in the future, but rather than focusing on the extensively-studied topic of the death of stony corals, it focuses on soft corals that are replacing stony corals in this location. My ongoing work provides a unique opportunity to describe this transition, as my students and I have been studying stony corals in St. John for 30 y. Recently we have analyzed 25 y of photographs to describe a gradual regime change in community structure favoring soft corals over stony corals. A limitation of this analysis is that soft corals cannot be identified to species in photographs, and with NSF support in 2014, we started in-water analysis to identify soft corals to species. At the end of the soft coral grant (May 2017) we have 3 y of data with which trends can be described, but the time series remains too sparse for rigorous analyses. An application for renewal to NSF recently was declined, and with the next submission due in August 2017 (for research in 2018), there is an urgent need to support 2017 surveys to maintain the integrity of the time-series, and test the hypothesis that soft corals communities are differentially changing relative to stony corals. This COAST proposal requests $7,500 that will be used for graduate support to conduct a 1-month fieldtrip to St. John, analyze data at CSUN, maintain competitiveness for NSF support, and promote graduate research leading to the MS degree. A grant submission for ~$500k will be submitted to NSF concurrent with the fieldwork supported by this application.​

Northridge$7,5002016-17 Rapid Response Program2649

​The current and potential distribution of an invasive annelid in central and southern California​​​

PernetBruno Rapid Response Program2016-17
The serpulid worm Ficopomatus enigmaticus, native to the Indian Ocean, has been present in San Francisco Bay since the 1920s, but has been discovered in other parts of central and southern California only in the past three years. Thus it appears that after many years of being restricted to San Francisco Bay, this species has started to spread on the California coast. Because this species makes large reefs of calcium carbonate, it can have dramatic negative effects on native species, and can also cause considerable economic harm as a fouling species. Knowledge of the distribution of this species in California is very incomplete. Our objectives are a) to survey the intertidal zone at ~80 sites in central and southern California to determine the current distribution of this species in the region, and b) to use these data in species distribution models to predict where populations of this species are likely to become established in the region in the future. COAST Rapid Response funding will be used to pay for the costs of two field surveys, in summer 2017 and winter 2018; species distribution modeling will be carried out after these surveys are carried out. Surveys like those proposed here are essential to document the distribution of this species at an early timepoint in the invasion. If the species spreads further in the state, survey data will be critically important in reconstructing invasion history. Species distribution model predictions will be extremely useful to habitat managers to guide their allocation of monitoring effort. In addition to generating research results of immediate utility, the project will result in one graduate student being trained in species distribution modeling, a widely used method in conservation biology.
Long Beach$5,2622016-17 Rapid Response Program125
​A river flowing from the sea: the effects of atmospheric rivers on U.S. West Coast oyster populations
ZacherlDanielleFernerMattRapid Response Program2016-17
​We will explore whether the recent Atmospheric River events ​impacting coastal California have a measurable effect on the mortality and reproductive success of Olympia oysters via lowering seawater salinity to levels intolerable to oysters. Viability of the Olympia oyster, the U.S. West Coast’s only native oyster species, is critical for the success of escalating restoration efforts. From spring to fall 2017, we will collect salinity data and conduct population surveys and recruitment assays in estuaries from San Francisco to San Diego Bay. We will test for mortality and reduced recruitment following this extremely wet winter by combining our survey results with available publically-accessible databases on rainfall and freshwater flow into estuaries, as well as already-deployed in situ salinity loggers. We will also deploy Hobo conductivity/salinity loggers and sondes in strategic locations for an emerging long-term project aimed at measuring oyster response to Atmospheric River events across a large swath of the species’ geographic range. COAST funds will directly support field research activities and will help initiate collaboration between faculty, technicians, and students at two California State schools, UC Davis, the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, and NOAA’s National Estuarine Research Reserves, and will support student training in experimental design, field survey techniques, statistics and communication of research. Additionally, we propose to use the results of this study as critical pilot data in a National Science Foundation proposal to explore oyster responses to atmospheric-level events that are projected to increase in intensity and frequency with climate change. This project promotes sustainable management of a valuable coastal resource, Olympia oysters, by identifying areas where oysters are particularly susceptible or resilient to AR events, thus guiding conservation and restoration efforts to target sites that maximize resilience of local populations. This is especially important because Olympia oysters are a target species for Living Shoreline Initiatives.
FullertonSan Francisco$7,5002016-17 Rapid Response Program17012421
collapse Year And Program : 2016-17 Grant Development Program ‎(7)
A field test of the interactive effects of ocean acidification and thermal stress on predator-prey dynamics in the rocky intertidal zone
BourdeauPaulAllenBengtGrant Development Program2016-17
Recent increases in atmospheric CO2 have led to increased global temperatures and reduced seawater pH, so-called ocean acidification (OA). Further changes in temperature and pH over the next century are expected to have dramatic effects on population dynamics, species interactions, and the structure of ecological communities; especially for calcifying marine organisms. Currently, we lack a framework for understanding the relative magnitudes of these effects or their interactions, especially given high variation in species’ responses to these stressors. Predicting their effects on community structure will require the development of realistic models of organismal responses to these stressors based on experiments done in natural systems. Our proposal addresses these challenges, taking advantage of natural environmental variation to test the independent and interactive effects of temperature stress and acidification on rocky intertidal communities. Intense seasonal upwelling can bathe intertidal areas in northern California with acidified waters for extended periods of time. We will assess the effects of upwelling-driven acidification and thermal stress on key calcifying rocky shore predators and prey (mussels, whelks, and crabs) along a 720 km section of northern California coast that varies in its exposure to upwelling events. By explicitly partitioning effects among acidification, temperature, and their interaction in the context of predator-prey dynamics, our study will advance our understanding of the potential for synergistic effects of multiple stressors to determine community structure and function on rocky shores. We will also be able to assess the degree to which resource availability influences organismal ability to physiologically mitigate costs of temperature and pH stress. Preliminary data suggest that resource subsidies associated with upwelling events may overwhelm negative environmental effects predicted from laboratory studies. Data generated by this project will form the basis of a subsequent research proposal to the National Science Foundation.
HumboldtLong Beach$20,0002016-17 Grant Development Program2622145
The marine biogeochemistry of iodine: the role of marine algae
CarranoCarlGrant Development Program2016-17
This project seeks to determine the role of biological processes involving marine algae as factors controlling iodine speciation in coastal seawater. The marine biogeochemistry of the trace element iodine is not well understood but has important implications in a variety of areas including human nutrition and disease, global and regional climatic effects, and the environment. Specific aims include the following: 1) To investigate the hypothesis that macroalgae such as the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera affect seawater iodine speciation through direct metabolism (i.e. uptake) of iodate. 2) To investigate the hypothesis that there is a connection between halogen (iodine) and iron metabolism in Macrocystis. Specifically to determine, at high resolution using synchrotron X-ray based spectroscopic methods, a) where both Iodine and iron are localized in Macrocystis cells b) to determine the exact chemical nature of the phase in which they are stored and c) the effect of iron on climatically significant iodine emissions. 3) To test the hypothesis that seawater iodine speciation can also be affected by marine microalgae as the result of leakage of sulfur containing reducing agents accompanying marine phytoplankton cell senescence, e.g., glutathione, cysteine, etc.
San Diego$17,9042016-17 Grant Development Program150
Immunity in the face of wasting disease: sea star candidate gene variation among clades and population​​s of Leptasterias spp.
CohenC. SarahGrant Development Program2016-17
Climate change predictions include an increase in the severity and incidence of disease. A recent die off of sea stars on the west Pacific coast is unprecedented in the geographic breadth of the impacted area and largely unexplained in cause. Variation in host immune response is an important aspect of epidemics, but sea star immunity is nearly unknown. Very recently, new genomics resources have become available allowing us to undertake bioinformatic discovery of candidate loci for use in analyzing the impact of strong disease selection across closely related species and a suite of loosely linked populations. We aim to take advantage of recently developed genomic resources in asteroid taxa including Leptasterias spp. that show microhabitat partitioning and differences in disease susceptibility to 1) survey genes of interest related to immunity and environmental stress; 2) compare variation in these loci within and between populations and species across gradients of disease incidence; 3) using this comparative data, test for signals of selection in DNA sequence data using codon based models of selection, tests for positively selected sites, and evidence of hard and soft selective sweeps. The project will support an SFSU graduate student who will be mentored by the PI in all phases of ecological genetic research from the field sites to molecular genetics benchwork and data analysis to the presentation of data in talks, posters, manuscripts, and grant proposals. Additional students will participate as research interns and trainees, and in classroom exercises associated with this project and developed in a Center for Computing in Life Sciences SFSU award. The project focus on applying the latest bioinformatic tests for detecting signatures of selection in candidate locus sequence data will provide excellent training in advanced techniques for studying environmental health in coastal and other habitats.
San Francisco$15,0002016-17 Grant Development Program155
Behavioral and neurophysiological responses of marine invertebrates exposed to synergistically-acting chronic and acute stress
CrookRobynStillmanJonathonGrant Development Program2016-17
Increasingly, anthropogenic ocean warming is a significant source of stress for coastal species. Despite extensive experimental work on the physiological effects of anthropogenic environmental stress (such as elevated ocean temperature and reduced pH), relatively few studies consider effects of interacting stressors. Fewer still have examined interactions between naturally-occurring stressors and novel, anthropogenic stressors. Here we examine how a relatively recent anthropogenic stressor - elevated ocean temperature - interacts with a naturally occurring stressor- physical injury. We will use two food-web-linked, coastal Californian species, the two-spot octopus (Octopus bimaculoides), and the porcelain crab, (Petrolisthes cinctipes), to measure the effects of these interacting stressors on sensory physiology, which has wide-ranging effects on anti-predator, foraging and mating behaviors. After a two-week chronic exposure to experimentally elevated water temperature, we will measure behavioral responses to graded mechanical stimuli applied to animals’ bodies. In parallel neurophysiological experiments, we will record sensory neuron responses to peripheral mechanical stimulation. To test the synergistic effect of thermal and injury stress, in a subset of chronically thermally-stressed animals we will give a minor peripheral injury the tip of one limb. After 24 hours, we will compare behavioral responses to mechanical stimuli among control animals, warmed animals and warmed-injured animals. Previous studies on un-warmed, injured animals will provide comparison data. Neurophysiological experiments will also be conducted at 24 h post-injury. One week later, a final behavioral test and neurophysiology experiment will be conducted to measure lasting effects. This study will provide important new information about the resilience of two coastal Californian species to emerging sources of environmental stress, when it is combined with other commonly-occurring insults. This study will reveal how these combined stressors may act synergistically to affect sensory physiology, which will aid in developing effective management and conservation strategies in response to environmental change.
San FranciscoSan Francisco$19,5592016-17 Grant Development Program2676154
The Eel Point project: re-evaluating a trans-Holocene record of human-coastal interactions
GusickAmyPerryJenniferGrant Development Program2016-17
Recent archaeological and genetic evidence supports the hypothesis that the earliest human colonists of the Americas migrated here during the Pleistocene via a coastal route along the North Pacific rim. Located on the northern Channel Islands are some of the oldest human remains and archaeological sites in North America. Comparable evidence likely exists on the southern Channel Islands but has yet to be definitively identified. One archaeological site that has the potential to produce this evidence is Eel Point on San Clemente Island. Previous research at the site revealed a chronology of human occupation from ~ 9,000 to 1,000 years ago. Its trans-Holocene deposits contain some of the oldest evidence of house structures in California, documented changes in subsistence economy including the introduction of shell fishhooks, and evidence of climatic fluctuations and environmental variability. Despite Eel Point’s significance, a shift in the Navy’s management of the island resulted in the cessation of academic research there for more than a decade. However, a new era is providing renewed opportunities on San Clemente Island to address important anthropological questions relating to human-coastal interactions. We propose to revisit Eel Point to refine the site’s chronology, including determining whether it has deposits dating prior to 9,000 years ago, and to evaluate changes in subsistence and mobility through time. Over the course of three trips we intend to conduct reconnaissance and limited subsurface testing to obtain archaeofaunal and botanical remains and samples for radiocarbon dating. The results from this work would provide the basis for applying for a large research grant to conduct a full-scale excavation at Eel Point. This research may inform us about initial human colonization and, by using a historical ecological approach, it will provide insights into the dynamic relationships between people, island environments, and climate change through time.
San BernardinoChannel Islands$19,8382016-17 Grant Development Program26872514
Gradients in metabolic performance across the intertidal zone: a comparative analysis of mussels and barnacles
HardyKristinZippayMackenzieGrant Development Program2016-17
Intertidal organisms live in one of the most environmentally stressful habitats on the planet, and daily fluctuations they experience in abiotic factors (e.g., temperature, oxygen, salinity, pH) are predicted to intensify as our global climate continues to change. Elevated temperature and oxygen limitation are two dominant stressors associated with periodic air emersion in the littoral zone; both of which have substantial direct effects on metabolism in ectotherms. In the proposed study, we aim to profile the ‘metabolic phenotype’ of adult mussels (Mytilus californianus) and acorn barnacles (Balanus glandula) from different intertidal zones (low, mid, high). We define metabolic phenotype as the individual’s baseline metabolic performance, and will characterize this parameter with a comprehensive suite of biochemical (e.g., citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase activity, [lactate]), physiological (VO2, aerobic scope, Pcrit, cardiac output) and behavioral (e.g., feeding rate) indices of metabolism. We hypothesize that there will be predictable gradients in metabolic performance across the tidal zone directly resulting from environmental variation. Further, these gradients may differ between mussels and barnacles owing to relative differences in their gas exchange ability during emersion (low and high, respectively). With more considerable funding in the future we hope also to identify differences in the 1) capacity for phenotypic plasticity (acclimation) and 2) genotype of mussels or barnacles across the vertical zonation. The proposed project has inherent value in its potential to identify physiological responses to emersion and climate-driven environmental variation, as well as document tidal position-dependent patterns in metabolic phenotype and capacity for plasticity that can be quantitatively integrated into predictive models of population persistence during climate change.
San Luis ObispoSonoma$20,0002016-17 Grant Development Program24542660
Are San Diego’s coastal and shelf seas carbon sources or sinks? Measuring direct air-sea CO2 exchange through time and space
OechelWalterGoodrichJordanGrant Development Program2016-17
We know that continental margins and coastal seas may represent up to 30% of the global oceanic carbon uptake despite covering a very small proportion of the oceanic extent. However, the complexities of the near-shore carbon system present challenges in understand the drivers of variability in air-sea CO2 exchange through time and space. For example, sea grass and kelp bed areas may draw down CO2 through primary production and lead to long-term storage of carbon, while changes in daily and seasonal air temperatures determine the potential ocean CO2 saturation. Therefore physical constraints may compete with marine biological uptake. Our proposed work would allow for the direct measurement of air-sea CO2 exchange using the eddy covariance technique on a mobile boat-based platform to link with long-term measurements from Scripps Pier in La Jolla. This boat-based CO2 exchange measurement system will also include automated measurements of the near-surface marine environment (pCO2, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) in order to determine the drivers of variability in the air-sea flux. Toward development of a full proposal for extramural funding from NSF, we will re-establish and improve upon a previously deployed boat-based system and operate several test ‘cruises’ from the La Jolla and Point Loma kelp beds toward the coastal margins. These test runs will allow us to refine our sampling system and develop permanent transects to be sampled regularly over time. These measurements will provide both the spatial and temporal scale necessary to develop empirical relationships between the air-sea CO2 fluxes and the physical and environment that controls them. We feel that these direct measurements of air-sea CO2 exchange will be critical in filling the gap in knowledge and data concerning the controls on near-coastal and continental margin carbon sink strength and reduce the large uncertainties associated with estimates of near-coastal ocean carbon uptake.
San DiegoSan Diego$19,9552016-17 Grant Development Program26932688
collapse Year And Program : 2015-16 Rapid Response Program ‎(8)
Evaluating potential cascading impacts of sea star wasting disease on top-down grazer regulation in kelp forests
AndersonToddRapid Response Program2015-16
Characterizing “top-down” grazing regulation has been a major focus of research on subtidal rocky reefs, and as coastal predator assemblages are increasingly altered by anthropogenic stressors, identifying essential components of top-down regulation is necessary to effectively inform management strategies. Yet experimental evaluations of subtidal predator-prey interactions are logistically difficult. We propose to use the recent outbreak of sea star wasting disease (SSWD) in California as a large-scale natural experiment to quantify the effects of top-down predatory regulation on grazing and macroalgal community structure within kelp forests, with a focus on herbivorous gastropods (Chlorostoma spp.) Since 2013, SSWD has greatly reduced the abundance of both main Chlorostoma predators (sea stars Pisaster, Pycnopodia) along the Pacific coast, providing an opportunity to evaluate the impacts of predator removal at a large, ecologically realistic scale. Using a paired sampling design (six sets of SSWD [+,-] sites ranging from the northern Channel Islands to Bodega Bay), we first propose to conduct subtidal surveys evaluating the density and distribution of Chlorostoma and the composition of macroalgae. This will allow us to determine whether predator presence influences macroalgal preferences of snails (use of Macrocystis as vertical predation refuge) and if so, whether this is correlated with changes in benthic community structure. Second, we propose to examine diet (using stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N) to determine whether consumption of high refuge (Macrocystis) vs. high nutrition (benthic) algal groups is influenced by predation threat. Finally, we propose to examine physical morphometrics of Chlorostoma to evaluate whether energy allocation to defensive growth vs. somatic growth/reproduction differs between sites with high (SSWD -) and low (SSWD +) predator presence. Our proposed research should provide insight as to whether predator-prey interactions observed in laboratory settings “scale-up” to natural systems, and may be useful in predicting potential ecosystem-level impacts of future disease outbreaks.
San Diego$7,4822015-16 Rapid Response Program44
Understanding the effects of the Refugio Oil Spill on resident marine mammals: a molecular approach
LewisonRebeccaRapid Response Program2015-16
The proposed research will use remote biopsies to assess the health effects of the Refugio Oil Spill on mammals using Tursiops truncatus as a model species. Utilizing samples composed of skin and blubber, we will combine hormone quantification and transcriptome analysis to investigate how hormone and genetic biomarkers differ in coastal and offshore T. truncatus relative to oil exposure. We currently have pre-spill reference samples from both T. truncatus populations in the SCB. Research efforts following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWHOS) produced circumstantial evidence of the negative effects of oil exposure on marine mammals including loss of adrenal function, lung injury, and reproductive impairment (Charmicael 2012, Schwacke et al 2014). Though the animals near the DWHOS exhibited pathologies consistent with effects of oil exposure, the studies that were conducted lack the ability to provide clear evidence of exposure and effect, and therefore lacking strong causative linkage with the spill event. It is these types of biological samples that we seek in relation with the Refugio Oil Spill. The goal of this Rapid Response project is to use molecular approaches to document the hormonal response and effects on gene expression of oil exposure on resident marine mammals. The Refugio Oil Spill provides an unusual opportunity as we already have in our possession dozens of biological samples from prior to the spill event that serve for crucial reference comparisons.
San Diego$5,0002015-16 Rapid Response Program1366
Persistence of oil-derived hydrocarbons in the coastal environment after the Refugio oil spill
MladenovNatalieRapid Response Program2015-16
Oil spills in coastal regions have devastating consequences for marine and coastal ecosystems. Therefore, the persistence of oil in the sea water matrix and the transformation it undergoes as a result of natural degradation processes is extremely relevant for remediation efforts. The degradation of the more aged and recalcitrant fraction of oil represents a knowledge gap in our understanding of the persistence of oil-derived hydrocarbons in the coastal environment. Studies comparing the degradability of various oil sources also are needed. During the rupture of the Plains All American Pipeline on May 20, 2015, approximately 20,000 gallons of crude oil spilled into coastal waters at Refugio in Santa Barbara County, CA. Concentrations and degradation rates of oil from the spill will be evaluated using a combination of gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) and rapid characterization of oil with fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling. The degradation kinetics will be calculated based on results of photo oxidation in a solar simulator and microbial degradation experiments with dark and sterile controls. Sampling from both the Refugio Oil Spill and a natural heavy oil seep will further allow for degradation rates of two different types of oil to be compared under similar conditions and identical sea water chemistry. The project will build expertise among the PI and collaborators at SDSU and Cal State Channel Islands on the topic of contaminant tracking in coastal areas. A female upper level undergraduate student who has expressed goals of pursuing graduate school will be supported through this project. It is expected that the preliminary results of this project will be used in future research proposals to extramural funding agencies. A manuscript will also be submitted for journal publication.
San Diego$6,8252015-16 Rapid Response Program2636
Coccidioidomycosis in rescued marine mammals along California’s coast​​​
LauerAntjeLiwanagHeatherMcDonaldBirgitteRapid Response Program2015-16
Coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, is the number one mycosis among stranded marine mammals along California’s coast. However, nothing is known about the frequency of exposure to the fungal pathogen among California’s marine mammals. Arthroconidia from the soil-dwelling fungal pathogen Coccidioides immitis, which is endemic to California, and Coccidioides posadasii, which is established in other areas of the Southwestern U.S., Mexico and some areas in South America, can become airborne when soil is disturbed and thus, can be transported by the wind to non-endemic areas, including California’s coast. Due to the ongoing drought and an increase in soil disturbance in endemic areas of the pathogen, incidence of valley fever in humans has increased several hundred percent since the late 1990’s. We propose to perform immunodiffusion assays on blood sera collected from rescued marine mammals in the summer and fall of 2015 to determine if these marine mammals were exposed to the fungal pathogen Coccidioides spp. at some point in their life, or if they suffer from an ongoing infection (acute coccidioidomycosis). Additionally, we will include the SPHERUSOL skin test (Nielsen Biosciences) to test for the presence of Coccidioides spp. antibodies. Because of the record stranding of marine mammals this spring, especially California sea lions, the shelters can provide blood sera from plenty of animals. We will include at least 3 (and up to 5) marine mammal rescue centers in this study from northern, central and southern California, and plan to perform about 100 tests at each center (300 tests minimum). The centers that will participate are the Marine Mammal Centers in Sausalito, Moss Landing, Morro Bay, San Pedro and Crescent City. We hypothesize that the rehabilitation facilities closest to the endemic areas of the pathogen will have a greater proportion of animals testing positive for exposure to Coccidioides spp.
BakersfieldSan Luis ObispoSan José$7,4942015-16 Rapid Response Program482634
Differential population genetic responses to severe disease in brooding seastars of the species complex Leptasterias spp.
CohenC. SarahRapid Response Program2015-16
The massive die off of sea stars due to sea star wasting disease (SSWD) is causing concern about the ecosystem wide impacts of the disappearance of these ecologically important species. Surveys focused on the broadcast spawning Pisaster ochraceous show signs of recent recovery. However, data from brooding sea stars like Leptasterias spp. are urgently needed because their limited dispersal ability and lower reproductive output make slower recovery from catastrophic events likely. Leptasterias form a cryptic species complex with overlapping distributions of multiple clades in Central California before the onset of SSWD. A previously undescribed clade, Clade Y, was most abundant in areas exposed to differences in salinity and multiple anthropogenic stressors, and could be a particularly stress tolerant clade with greater disease resistance. We will use a combination of field surveys and molecular work to test three important hypotheses about Leptasterias abundance and genetic diversity that will ultimately contribute to our understanding of population connectivity and local adaptation for species with limited dispersal: 1) SSWD coincides with a significant decline in Leptasterias abundance, 2) Genetic diversity both within and across populations is declining in areas where SSWD has been reported, and, 3) Clade Y is better able to withstand multiple stressors including exposure to SSWD as evidenced by an increase in relative abundance and distribution. Results from this project will show the impact of a severe disease outbreak on a brooding sea star with limited dispersal ability. Our data will add information about population connectivity of local areas, including MPAs, and allow scientists and managers to make inferences about the trajectories of future disease events.
San Francisco$7,4942015-16 Rapid Response Program155
Understanding the future of California’s beaches: geomorphologic baseline of the Salinas sub-cell at the onset of the 2015-16 El Niño
AielloIvanoRapid Response Program2015-16
We seek support from COAST to create a geomorphologic baseline of the emergent beach between the South of the Salinas River and the head of the Monterey Canyon (Salinas sub-cell). The overall goals are: 1) to produce a high-resolution geomorphologic baseline of the sub-cell prior to the 2015-2016 El Niño that will provide the foundation for future coastal geomorphology studies; 2) to quantify changes in the volume of the emergent beach and net sand loss from the system following storm activity. Digital elevation models will be produced based on the stereophotogrammetric analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) surveys conducted in October 2015. High-resolution terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys will be carried out along 8 transects encompassing beach-normal segments including the fore-dune and the toe of the beach. Sediment samples will also be collected and analyzed with a laser particle sizer to detect changes in grain size and sedimentologic trends between survey sites. The urgency of this request is motivated by the need to survey the beaches of the Salinas sub-cell prior to the onset of large storm activity during the 2015-2016 El Niño (95% probability). To measure beach morphology variability, 4 of the 8 TLS transects will be repeatedly surveyed before and after major storms and compared with the baseline survey data (TLS and UAV). Together with the results of the grain size trends, the geomorphologic information will be used to estimate and interpret the direction and the volume of sediment transport along the emergent portion of the sub-cell. Specifically, volumetric changes of the beach segment bordering the head of the canyon will be interpreted in terms of amount of total sand loss.
San José$13,9412015-16 Rapid Response Program52
Using El Niño to examine the impact of extreme climate on salt marshes
LongJeremyLipsonDavidStowDougRapid Response Program2015-16
We will use the current strong El Niño as a tool for studying the impact of climate on salt marshes. We will compare field manipulations of plant competition and plant responses to herbivory during the current El Niño to previous studies from non-El Niño years. Further, we will correlate changes in abiotic factors and primary production with pore water chemistry. Our project asks: 1) Does climate influence competitive interactions between marsh plants?; 2) Do the impacts of herbivory and compensatory growth on cordgrass production depend upon climate?; and 3) What are the impacts of climate on primary and secondary production, and do these depend upon a marsh’s riverine influence?
San DiegoSan DiegoSan Diego$13,9412015-16 Rapid Response Program211312421767
Is San Diego an El Niño ready city?
KinoshitaAliciaRapid Response Program2015-16
The 2015-2016 El Niño is developing into the largest event on historical record with possibly a greater impact than the 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 events. For southern California, the impacts may include destructive storms, mudslides, and flooding. Due to the recurring nature of El Niño and its impacts on society, early-warning systems and forecasts may prompt national and local decision makers and communities to prepare for climate-related hazards at specific locations and times. However, forecasts of El Niño events are still rather limited, complicating mitigation strategies. Most El Niño disaster lessons are drawn from case studies of specific impacts and experience, which result in disaster-related “lessons learned,” but in reality are often “lessons identified.” This research seeks to distinguish the degree to which lessons identified become lessons learned, which is a characteristic of an El Niño ready city (ENRC). Areas that are prone to weather extremes may benefit from ENRC practices, where El Niño extremes are a constant topic of interest, potentially providing more effective management for hazardous threats and also bridging mitigation efforts with sustainable development. This would encourage the need to broaden primarily now-and-then forecasts of the onset and then behavior of a specific event towards a more holistic approach that includes all available information such as historical accounts of El Niño-related socioeconomic and physical impacts. This research will collect opportune pilot data through surveys and interviews with local agencies in San Diego, California during the 2015-2016 El Niño and conduct extensive literature reviews to identify lessons learned from previous events. Results will improve our understanding of El Niño ready cities and will identify strengths, opportunities, constraints, and challenges for San Diego. It is anticipated that this preliminary research will extend to other cities and will also support future international collaborations and a cross-border comparison in Tijuana, Mexico.
San Diego$13,9412015-16 Rapid Response Program2667
collapse Year And Program : 2015-16 Grant Development Program ‎(7)
Conservation connections: links between eelgrass (Zostera marina) and an extremely rare high marsh plant (Suaeda californica) in two California estuaries
BoyerKatharynO'LearyJenniferYostJenniferGrant Development Program2015-16
Shed tissues from rapidly growing coastal vegetation can represent a valuable subsidy of nutrients and organic matter to other plants and animals. Loss of species that provide this material, such as seagrasses, could have detrimental effects on recipient species and processes. Eelgrass (Zostera marina), a seagrass with global distribution in temperate estuaries, has undergone extreme losses (97%) in Morro Bay since 2007, and occupies only a fraction of potential habitat in San Francisco Bay. These are the only two estuaries supporting a federally endangered high-marsh plant, the sea-blite Suaeda californica. In past years, eelgrass wrack has accumulated in Morro Bay around adult Suaeda and seedlings, perhaps providing nutrients, moisture, or organic matter that augment Suaeda establishment and growth; however, recent eelgrass losses may signal the beginning of a Suaeda decline in Morro Bay. In San Francisco Bay, a greenhouse experiment suggested that a paucity of eelgrass wrack may contribute to poor Suaeda re-establishment success. We will gather preliminary data on the linkages between eelgrass and Suaeda through review of historic images and observations, surveys of Suaeda and wrack line composition and distribution, and field experiments testing the relationship between eelgrass wrack and Suaeda success in both estuaries. COAST support will foster a new collaboration among two CSUs and a National Estuary Program that will position us for a successful grant submittal to the NSF Coastal SEES program. That proposal will include: 1) evaluation of the interactions that occur between eelgrass wrack and other estuarine organisms including Suaeda and other plant and animal species as well as processes such as decomposition and remineralization, 2) hydrodynamic modeling of transport in both estuaries to predict areas of wrack accumulation, and 3) development of restoration recommendations to re-establish eelgrass and interacting species in particular locations that will provide maximum benefit.
San FranciscoSan Luis ObispoSan Luis Obispo$15,0002015-16 Grant Development Program202325832631
Investigating Holocene primary productivity and environmental variability in the California Current Ecosystem and implications for future climate change
CarlinJosephWagnerAmyGrant Development Program2015-16
Oceanic upwelling is a prominent feature along continental margins influenced by eastern boundary currents. The influx of nutrients from deep waters contributes to high surface primary productivity, which in turn supports some of the world’s most productive fisheries. However, the fate of upwelling remains unresolved in the face of future climate change. This is particularly true within the California Current Ecosystem, where confidence in the predictions of future upwelling are low due to a wide range of environmental complexities. This project aims to address the uncertainty of future California Current upwelling by investigating evidence of past primary productivity in the geologic record in response to environmental forcing throughout the Holocene (e.g., the last 11,700 years). By understanding how marine and terrestrial environmental changes have influenced upwelling and primary productivity in the past, we hope to better refine predictions of future conditions influenced by climate change. The objectives for this study are to collect and analyze marine sediment cores from the Monterey Bay continental shelf off the central California coast. This research will integrate a variety of analyses including: stable and radioactive isotope geochemistry, trace-element geochemistry, core scanning XRF and physical properties analysis, biogenic silica spectrophotometry, and sedimentological analyses. Anticipated products from this COAST funding are: teaching/mentoring of students during ocean-based fieldwork; and a preliminary data set to incorporate into a subsequent NSF-Ocean Sciences proposal that expands the study across the California margin.
FullertonSacramento$14,9502015-16 Grant Development Program25782560
The influence of oceanic conditions and phytoplankton lipid content on lipid accumulation patterns of northern California Current zooplankton
CassChristineBjorkstedtEricShaughnessyFrankGrant Development Program2015-16
We propose to examine the factors influencing the lipid accumulation patterns of zooplankton residing off of Trinidad Head, California. Zooplankton play an important role as middlemen in oceanic food webs, and understanding what controls their ability to accumulate energy stores (and therefore provide a better quality food source to their predators) will help us be able to better predict success of higher trophic levels. We will investigate the roles that (1) prey (phytoplankton) lipid content, (2) oceanographic conditions, and (3) zooplankton community structure play on determining the ultimate lipid accumulation of the bulk zooplankton community. The project will run for three years. Two years will be dedicated to field and laboratory work, with the final year allocated to data analysis and dissemination. The zoo- and phytoplankton communities will be sampled monthly at previously established stations (Trinidad Head Line) on the continental shelf and past the shelf break off of Trinidad Head. Portions of each of these samples will be preserved and analyzed for community structure. Both phytoplankton and zooplankton will also be assayed using an Iatroscan that will measure the total mass of lipids in each major lipid class. Physical oceanographic conditions will be described using CTD data collected during sampling cruises in conjunction with a pier-based sensor in Trinidad Harbor and the high frequency radar site on the north side of Trinidad State Beach. In order to better understand the connection between oceanographic conditions and lipid content of phytoplankton, the lipid response of a subset of diatom and dinoflagellate taxa will be examined when these species are cultured in the laboratory across a range of in vitro conditions (temperature, nutrients, light) representative of those experienced in the local marine environment.
HumboldtHumboldtHumboldt$6,8642015-16 Grant Development Program244126291712
A hybrid UCOAM coastal ocean model: interfacing with the SCCOOS California state-wide ROMS system
CastilloJoseThomasMaryGrant Development Program2015-16
For people who live along coastal regions, having information about the state of the coastal and ocean waters is extremely important. The SCCOOS/CA-ROMS 3-km model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System extends along the California border, and has a resolution of 3 km. It produces forecasts and nowcasts for sea surface height, water temperature, salinity, and currents. There is a need for increased resolution in certain scenarios. The SDSU Unified Curvilinear Ocean and Atmospheric Model (UCOAM) is a 3D curvilinear, nonhydrostatic, large eddy simulation model. UCOAM can simulate ocean processes at spatial scales of a meter and coastal processes of less than 1-km. If vertical accelerations are large, and if horizontal scales are small, then non-hydrostatic effects may be important, and it is in this regime where UCOAM has the potential to contribute ocean models. We will develop a new hybrid model by nesting UCOAM within the CA-ROMS model. We will demonstrate its capabilities by modeling hydrodynamics in the San Diego Bay. Results will published via a portal based using “Drop-a-Drifter Water Trajectories” software used by SCOOS and other programs.
San DiegoSan Diego$15,0002015-16 Grant Development Program12292630
The potential of foraminifera based paleoceanography in the Bay of Bengal
DekensPetraGrant Development Program2015-16
The Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 354 drilled ocean sediments in the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean in February and March of 2015. The recovered sediments are a mixture of pelagic material from the overlying water column and terrestrial material that originates from Himalayan rivers and are brought to the Bay of Bengal through turbidity currents. These sediments presents a unique opportunity to understand how the strength of the Asian monsoon is related to oceanographic and climate conditions during the Mid-Pleistocene transition when climate moved from responding to 40 kyr obliquity cycle to the 100 kyr eccentricity cycle. This project aims to first show that the planktonic foraminifera fossils found in Exp 354 sediments originate from the overlying water column and are not transported in through turbidity currents. This will be done by measuring δ18O in 75 foraminifera shells at two Exp 354 sites and one site in the northern bay. The distribution of the δ18O data will reflect the seasonal SSS range, which is smaller in Exp 354 sites compared to the site in the northern Bay of Bengal. Second, the project will test that the Mg/Ca in planktonic foraminifera can used to reconstruct records of SST in these sediments by using laser ablation ICP-MS work to examine intra-shell variability. Finally, the project will generate preliminary data SST and SSS of the MPT that demonstrates that glacial-interglacial cycles are recorded in these sediments and can be linked to records of monsoon strength recorded in the same sediments. This study will be a unique contribution, as the records will be the first to measure oceanographic conditions and a proxy for Asian Monsoon strength in the same sediments, thereby allowing us to examine the relationships between high and low latitude climate variability.
San Francisco$14,9372015-16 Grant Development Program2627
Ecomorphology and biogeography of Pacific coast Storm-petrels
HertelFritzGrant Development Program2015-16
Storm-petrels (Family Hydrobatidae) are the smallest seabirds and typically breed in colonies on uninhabited islands. The only known breeding colonies for some species are on only one island, making them particularly vulnerable to both natural and man-made degradation of their islands. Nine species breed along the west coast of North and South America in generally similar habitats in both hemispheres and are the focus of this study. Some of these storm-petrel species exhibit a unique feeding behavior called pattering, which is analogous to walking on water. They face into the wind with outstretched wings and patter on the sea surface using their feet while picking up small organisms from the sea surface; other species have not been observed to patter. We aim to describe the functional adaptations of wing morphology (wing loading, aspect ratio) and hind limb morphology (length, foot size) associated with pattering among these storm-petrels. These data will be integrated with tail and beak morphology to determine how these combined features correlate with what is known of differences in their ecology (ecomorphology) to better understand ecological segregation among species. We can then explore the distribution of functional types within and between hemispheres. Three species have only two known breeding colonies separated by about 800 km so we will also analyze the genetic relationships between populations for each species to determine whether there is gene flow or whether they should be considered separate units for conservation purposes. This project will provide an understanding of the functional ecology associated with pattering, will help determine competitive interactions among species within and between each hemisphere, will provide data for use in conservation efforts on their breeding islands, and help understand the evolution and radiation of this unique family of birds.
Northridge$4,9712015-16 Grant Development Program2489
Visualization of coastal water environments and periodic migratory populations from sensor data
WoodZoeLoweChrisGrant Development Program2015-16
In response to the international importance of quantifying the movement patterns and habitat driven behaviors of coastal fish and sharks so as to better conserve and protect these species, this grant proposes to expand the currently funded work on `Multi-Robot Systems for Tracking, Monitoring, and Modeling of Periodic Migratory Populations’ to include an educational visualization component. We propose to expand the current work into a multi-disciplinary project between robotics, biology and computer graphics to enhance the study of periodic migratory populations in coastal waters. This proposal focuses on adding a visualization component to this existing research project. In addition, we aim to grow the overall undergraduate research opportunities associated with this project and develop a full proposal to continue this multi-disciplinary work via an REU site proposal. We plan to establish the new collaboration, complete initial work on the visualization system and develop the details of a complete multi-disciplinary REU site program proposal.
San Luis ObispoLong Beach$13,9412015-16 Grant Development Program2624106
collapse Year And Program : 2014-15 Strategic Investment Program ‎(2)
Marine organismal integromics: Improving predictions of how a changing ocean will affect organisms by integrating multiple levels of biological organization
TomanekLarsLemaSeanStillmanJonathonTsukimuraBrianStrategic Investment Program2014-15
Coastal oceans are subject to multiple stressors including chemical pollution, excess nutrient runoff, hypoxia and changes in ocean temperatures and pH stemming from global climate change. Understanding how these stressors impact species is one of the foremost challenges in identifying management actions that can have long-lasting positive effects on our oceans, and addressing that challenge requires an understanding of how marine organisms are being impacted by the various combinations of stressors. Over the past decades, such research efforts have commonly been conducted in the form of research collaborations comprising only a few laboratories, as marine organismal research has emphasized deconstructing organisms into cellular mechanisms to understand how organisms function and respond in the face of environmental change. While this reductionistic approach of ‘disassembling the organism’ has contributed fundamental knowledge about the cell’s function, it has become increasingly evident that biologists continue to struggle to translate cellular level changes into functional consequences at the organ and organismal levels. This task has become even more acute as data obtained using sophisticated molecular ‘omics’ techniques (e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics) raise new questions about which molecular responses matter most for the function and, ultimately, survival and reproduction of marine organisms. There is now a need to develop larger collaborative research networks that can integrate scientific efforts effectively across multiple levels of biological organization. To begin to address this need, COAST funding will be used to convene a workshop of CSU researchers to promote collaboration across institutions, facilitate the identification of emerging research needs, and foster the theoretical refinement of tools necessary for predicting the responses of marine organisms to changing ocean conditions. This research workshop will serve as the first step in obtaining external funding as a Research Coordination Network (RCN) to sustain collaborative marine organismal research coordination across and beyond the CSU campuses.
San Luis ObispoSan Luis ObispoSan FranciscoFresno$20,0002014-15 Strategic Investment Program19523701541676
Center for CSU Aquaculture: research, education, and policy
GrahamMichaelHamiltonScottLeeMichaelEdwardsMattStrategic Investment Program2014-15
We are proposing to establish a Center for Aquaculture in the CSU, which includes increasing research capacity, providing support for curriculum and educational programs, coordination and transfer of technologies and skills among CSU partners, and involvement in forming policy. The primary location will be the newly dedicated Aquaculture Facility at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML), but the emphasis of the Center will be a collaboration and synthesis of effort throughout the CSU. The Center would provide infrastructure for collaborative research and an educational framework establishing a range of qualifications in aquaculture science at MLML, from certificates up to the degree level, and outreach and policy assessment and coordination. We are proposing to use COAST funds to (1) convene three meetings of interested faculty and researchers within the CSU during which proposal specifics will be developed, (2) provide additional compensation for four faculty members to spearhead the development and submittal of at least four proposals earmarked for specific funding agencies (federal, state, and private), and (3) develop a separate proposal to CA Sea Grant to support a CA-wide aquaculture workshop that will address the future of aquaculture and the role of the CSU in aquaculture science and education. A primary mission of the CSU is to provide training for students to enter the workforce in California, with particular strengths in nursing, forestry, biotechnology, and business; the CSU Center for Aquaculture will be specifically designed to train a technical workforce to support the emerging aquaculture industry in California, the United States, and worldwide.
San JoséSan JoséEast BaySan Diego$44,8232014-15 Strategic Investment Program5523411673187
collapse Year And Program : 2014-15 Rapid Response Program ‎(3)
Opportunistic assessment of El Niño effects on connectivity and recruitment
WhiteCrowZacherlDanielleRuttenbergBenjaminRapid Response Program2014-15
This proposal will leverage the anticipated upcoming El Niño with a field survey and sampling program for assessing El Niño effects on connectivity and recruitment in nearshore marine species. El Niño oceanographic conditions can cause anomalous dispersal patterns and may drive northward range expansion in nearshore marine species along the U.S. west coast. Preliminary research indicates that the kelp forest gastropod Kellet’s whelk (Kelletia kelletii) is a highly tractable case-study species for assessing these effects. This project will survey the size-specific population density and size frequency distribution, and collect adult, pre-dispersal egg, and recruit tissue samples of Kellet’s whelk following the predicted 2014-15 El Niño at key sites across the species’ historic range in Baja and southern California, and within the species’ newly expanded range north of Pt. Conception along the central California coast. The survey data will be compared with past surveys by this team to test for increased recruitment at expanded-range sites in association with El Niño oceanographic conditions. Leveraging a longer-term project, soon in review with NSF, the tissue samples will be combined with archived and forthcoming samples and analyzed using genetic and microchemistry methods to assign recruits to source locations and test for El Niño effects on connectivity across Pt. Conception. The data fills a gap in preliminary research, increasing the likelihood of funding of the NSF proposal. The COAST project will consist of two phases: obtaining collection permits, recruiting and training students, and organizing field logistics (Feb-May); and conducting field research, data analyzing and archiving, and presentation of results (June-July). This project will strengthen collaborations among marine science labs at Cal Poly and CSUF, support the training of CSU students in marine ecology research, and provide to scientists and the public data and insight enhancing knowledge of California’s natural marine resources and the processes affecting them.
San Luis ObispoFullertonSan Luis Obispo$7,5002014-15 Rapid Response Program258017012581
Fine-scale genetic structure of Elegant Tern populations during El Niño and non-El Niño years
AguilarAndresHornMichaelRapid Response Program2014-15
Elegant terns are highly migratory colonial nesting seabirds with restricted breeding ranges. The major site for elegant tern nesting is on Isla Rasa in Baja California; however three smaller nesting sites have been established in southern California (Port of Los Angeles, Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve and San Diego). During normal years more than 90% of all elegant terns nest on Isla Rasa, however during El Nino years most individuals forgo nesting on Isla Rasa and may migrate to southern California to nest. The southern California nesting populations are known to exist as a single population, however it is unknown if the Baja California birds are genetically distinct, especially during El Niño years when mixing might occur. We will be utilizing molecular genetic data to test three important hypotheses concerning elegant tern population structure: 1) That significant structure exists between Isla Rasa and southern California colonies; 2) That the southern California colonies exist as a metapopulation; and 3) That genetic structure is maintained during mixing that occurs in El Niño years. Results from this project will provide valuable information on a seabird species that is an indicator of local fisheries. Additionally this information can be used to predict how this species may respond to climate change driven range shifts.
Los AngelesFullerton$7,4002014-15 Rapid Response Program2490131
Evaluating the effects of sea star loss on central California intertidal communities in the presence and absence of human influence
O'LearyJenniferRapid Response Program2014-15
A recent (2013) sea star wasting disease decimated populations of five species from Vancouver Island to San Diego, including the keystone predator Pisaster ochraceous. P. ochraceous maintains intertidal diversity by controlling mussel populations and opening space for other less competitive sessile organisms. The recent P. ochraceous die-off is predicted to dramatically reduce biodiversity by allowing expansion of mussel beds. However, whether P. ochraceous is a keystone predator depends on the ability of mussels to dominate an area. Thus, the predicted ecosystem shifts may occur at a limited suite of locations. This project initiates two long-term monitoring sites in central California to evaluate the effects of loss of sea stars in the rocky intertidal at a site with extensive human trampling and mussel harvest and a site with highly restricted access. The project is being conducted in parallel with researchers from Hopkins Marine Station, the Bodega Bay Marine Lab, and Humboldt State University, thus allowing evaluation of trends in oceanographically different areas. We will evaluate changes in sea star and mussel abundance, size structure, and distribution; alternative mussel predators; and sessile community diversity in two central California sites: Diablo Canyon (limited human access) and Hazards (high access). At each site, we will establish and monitor 5-6 vertical swaths in the lower intertidal zone. Using the results of this project and existing data from PISCO surveys, the effects of sea star loss can be predicted for other areas of the California coast. The project will allow an undergraduate student and new faculty member at Cal Poly to engage in high profile research related to an unprecedented ecological event in California. The project requires rapid funding to launch before sea stars begin to recover and to cover the same monitoring periods as project partners at other universities.
San Luis Obispo$7,5002014-15 Rapid Response Program2583
collapse Year And Program : 2014-15 Grant Development Program ‎(9)
Osmotically driven membrane processes for sustainable seawater desalination
AchilliAndreaGrant Development Program2014-15
Securing a reliable supply of freshwater among growing human populations and rapidly changing climate has emerged as a global-scale challenge. As demands for potable freshwater increase, water-stressed regions are exploring non-traditional means of augmenting their freshwater supply. In coastal regions, desalination is regarded as a potential means of achieving a sustainable water supply. However, the potential benefits of desalination are offset by high-energy demand issues related to brine treatment/disposal. The proposed research will examine emerging desalination technologies with the potential to improve energy efficiency and minimize brine disposal issues. Osmotically driven membrane processes, such as forward osmosis (FO) and pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), represent a novel approach to desalination with the potential to greatly improve sustainability by assisting in water and energy recovery during seawater desalination. These processes can be combined with reverse osmosis (RO) to recover osmotic gradients/pressure while reducing the concentrations of brine effluents from RO treatment processes. The overall goal of the proposed research is to design, construct, and test a flexible osmotically driven membrane system to treat seawater to potable standards. The system consists of an RO process, an FO/PRO process, and an energy recovery unit. The FO/PRO process will be arranged upstream or downstream of the RO process and in a closed- or open-loop configuration depending on feed water characteristics. This project will build from the experience gained with the RO-PRO pilot-scale investigation to optimize the operating parameters necessary for the development of a highly efficient RO desalination system. For the first time, a suit of osmotically driven membrane processes will be tested side by side and results will be directly compared. If funded, the research team will partner with several equipment development companies for the development and supply of new FO and PRO membranes and for the development and supply of tailored pressure exchangers.
Humboldt$9,0742014-15 Grant Development Program2487
Environmental variability and investment in thermal defenses: the importance of recent history
AllenBengtGrant Development Program2014-15
Higher temperature variability associated with global change is likely to be an important driver of biological disturbance in the future, as it increases the risk that species’ physiological limits will be exceeded. In response to thermal stress, many organisms exhibit characteristic physiological changes associated with increased tolerance to subsequent high temperatures. The degree to which individuals are able to adjust their thermal sensitivity and the associated energetic costs to do so will determine the fitness consequences of more frequent exposure to more extreme conditions. Although sublethal effects of stress have implications for population persistence and species interactions in the face of climate change, we still lack a general framework for understanding how increasing temperature variation will influence the relative size of sublethal versus lethal effects in natural ecosystems. My students and I are developing an intuitive graphical model to explore how local thermal regime and food availability may interact to determine levels of investment in thermal defenses, and as a consequence, when sublethal negative effects of temperature stress will be large relative to effects on survival. We propose to test predictions of this model and its assumptions in the field and lab by manipulating temperature variation and food availability to rocky intertidal mussels and quantifying their subsequent demographic, behavioral, and physiological performance. Data generated by this project will form the basis of a subsequent proposal to the National Science Foundation. By explicitly partitioning treatment effects among temperature stress, food ration, and their interaction, this study will significantly advance our understanding how local resource availability can limit the capacity of individuals to mitigate costs of thermal stress through physiological mechanisms. Broader impacts of this project are focused on the integration of undergraduate teaching and research at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), a High Hispanic Enrollment (HHE) institution.
Long Beach$15,0002014-15 Grant Development Program145
Nesting of non-hydrostatic and hydrostatic numerical ocean models
ChoboterPaulGrant Development Program2014-15
Internal waves are ubiquitous features in the coastal ocean. The breaking of these waves, and eventual transformation into higher-frequency waves and bores, play a significant role in the generation of turbulence and diapycnal mixing in the ocean. Despite a growing body of literature on the subject, questions still remain with respect to the evolution, fate, and impact of these features. The numerical modeling of these waves is a major challenge due to the nonhydrostatic dynamics and large range of scales involved. In particular, the details of their generation depend on large-scale features such as vertical stratification and mesoscale currents, while details of their breaking and shoaling depend on smaller-scale processes. This study will use a hybrid numerical model designed to capture both larger-scale physics and fine-scale nonhydrostatic features in the coastal ocean. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is a hydrostatic ocean model ideally suited to simulate mesoscale to basin-scale ocean processes. The Unified Curvilinear Ocean Atmosphere Model (UCOAM) is a nonhydrostatic model designed specifically for high-resolution (meters) simulations. In this research, we will develop a hybrid model that nests a fine-grid UCOAM model within ROMS running on a coarser grid. The hybrid model will be used to study realistic currents and non-hydrostatic features in Monterey Bay with a focus on coastal and canyon regions. This hybrid model will provide insight into how larger-scale processes influence non-hydrostatic features such as shoaling internal waves and bores. The results may prove useful in informing future numerical modeling efforts to parameterize these features in larger-scale models, as well as predicting the timing and location of bore generation. This has implications for diapycnal mixing, transport processes, and a host of biological/ecological processes such as larval connectivity and the transport of low dissolved oxygen/pH waters to the nearshore.
San Luis Obispo$4,4202014-15 Grant Development Program1452
Assessing the success of green abalone out planting in San Diego: a possible avenue for population recovery?
EdwardsMattGrant Development Program2014-15
Southern California is home to seven abalone species that have historically supported lucrative commercial and recreational fisheries. However, due to overharvest and disease, their abundances have declined over the past decades to the point where many populations have reached near extinction. Thus, activities to restore these populations in the wild are of paramount importance to the survival of the species. One way this may occur is by growing abalone in the laboratory and then out planting them to the field. However, the ultimate success of these activities is unclear, largely due to a lack of understanding of how out planted individuals survive once placed in the field. To address this knowledge gap, we will examine the success of previous (11 yrs ago) efforts in which ~600 green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) were grown in the laboratory and out planted to the Point Loma kelp forest. Specifically, we will conduct diver surveys of the out plant areas and nearby non-out plant areas in order to quantify H. fulgens densities and size distributions. Once these surveys have been completed, if we find that H. fulgens densities within the out plant areas have indeed been enhanced, we will write two proposals to expand on these efforts, one of which will be submitted to NOAA’s Aquaculture program to explore the viability of using land-based aquaculture facilities to produce abalone for further out planting efforts, and one that will be submitted to CA Sea Grant that will focus on how different out planting techniques impact short-term (weeks to months) survival of out planted individuals. Thus, this current study will provide the needed baseline data to determine if out planting laboratory-reared abalone indeed enhances natural populations over long (years to decades) periods, and compare different out planting strategies to increase individual survival.
San Diego$12,2172014-15 Grant Development Program187
Identifying critical coastal habitat under a changing climate along the California central coast
HinesEllenGrant Development Program2014-15
Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive and threatened systems in the world. Increased coastal erosion and inundation along the California coast is likely due to changes in sea level rise, storm frequency and severity as climate changes. There are critical gaps in our understanding of the structure and dynamics of complex nearshore systems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel models of ecological and physical processes in the coastal interface using new high-resolution geospatial data sets. The interdisciplinary project team will develop novel models of ecological and physical processes in the coastal interface using cutting edge geospatial datasets and techniques that draw upon expertise of the team. Products we develop will support coastal planning for climate adaptation as these ecologically important habitats and services also serve as natural protection in a changing climate. The proposed project is significant as it leverages innovative new datasets (e.g., USGS California wave model, high resolution LIDAR, seafloor imagery) to advance spatial modeling efforts along the Central California Coast. Ultimately the project strives to 1) develop long-term collaborative research on the identification of critical coastal habitat at key trophic levels; 2) support ecosystem service assessment needed to ensure coastal resilience; 3) develop products that will support coastal planning for climate adaptation as these ecologically important habitats and services also serve as natural protection in a changing climate.
San Francisco$14,5182014-15 Grant Development Program1827
A novel approach to in situ marine contaminant assessment: Linking exposure to effects
LewisonRebeccaHohEunhaGrant Development Program2014-15
Understanding the impact of lifetime exposure to ocean contaminants in humans is a recognized research and public health priority. To address this pressing issue, our project will use marine mammals as a model mammal system to explore the physiological effects of persistent organic contaminants. We plan to integrate three cutting edge techniques to advance the ability to identify novel contaminants and potential mechanisms compromising the health of mammals: genome wide gene expression (transcriptomes), recently developed steroid hormone assays, and high-resolution two-dimensional gas chromatography. Utilizing routinely collected dart biopsy samples composed of skin and blubber, we will combine contaminant analysis, hormone quantification, and transcriptome analysis to conduct a health assessment of free-ranging dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Southern California Bight. The combination of these techniques will allow for a more comprehensive approach to health assessment by examining the ecotoxicological effect of total contaminant load rather than a small fraction of compounds to which marine mammals are exposed. This project is a vital step towards the development of reliable health assessment biomarkers for ecotoxicological studies and will provide valuable scientific data for the management and protection of marine ecosystems in the southern California region.
San DiegoSan Diego$15,0002014-15 Grant Development Program13662326
Sea star wasting disease; the microbiome involved and proteomic response in Patiria miniata
LivingstonBrianGrant Development Program2014-15
Sea star wasting syndrome caused a major die-off of sea stars in 1983-84, again in 1997-98 and is currently decimating sea star populations in many areas along the California coast. The wasting syndrome is often associated with warmer water temperatures and has been reported to be caused by a bacteria or virus, although the causative agent has not been definitively identified. There may be multiple causes of the syndrome by different pathogens, although a systematic study of different causes has not been carried out. The syndrome is also likely to involve the host sea star’s response to the pathogen or to environmental conditions, although this has not been investigated. Because the genome of the sea star Patiria miniata has now been completed, we are now in a position to examine the host response during the wasting process. We plan to compare individuals with the wasting syndrome to unaffected controls. We will obtain samples of coelomic fluid, coelomocytes and tissue surrounding lesions. We will then isolate proteins from these samples, fractionate, digest with trypsin and analyze by mass spectroscopy. The resulting data will be compared to the complete set of proteins encoded in the genome. By using genomic data not previously available and examining the host sea star’s involvement in the lesions we will provide significant information relevant to both immune system function and evolution. We will also use large scale sequencing to study the microbiome associated with the syndrome. The combined data will provide important insight into the origins of this syndrome. These studies are likely to be of increasing importance as global warming and ocean acidification continue, increasing the stress on sea stars and other marine organisms.
Long Beach$15,0002014-15 Grant Development Program
Pharmaceutical and evolutionary perspective on bioactive compounds in marine invertebrates – a focus on invasive species
MackieJoshuaOkudaRoyAmagataTaroGrant Development Program2014-15
Our overarching goal is to explore how studying a large number of species through modern chemical characterization and genetic approaches can extend access to medically significant compounds while at the same time increase understanding of the ecological importance of symbiotic relationships. We will focus on bioactive compounds in shallow marine fouling communities comprised of sessile animals, including sponges and bryozoans, which often have bacterial symbionts. An estimated 15,000 novel compounds have been identified from marine microbes and their invertebrate hosts, such as the bryozoan Bugula neritina, and many are being developed into bioactive compounds. In coastal urban areas heavily affected by introductions, many of these host species are becoming common globally. This biological assemblage thus presents the opportunity to study bioactive compounds that are both ecologically and medically relevant. We will use the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) dose-survival assay to measure toxicities of common sessile species (including ascidians and bryozoans) to test whether a putative level of defense against predation correlates with native or introduced status of populations and invasion histories, or bacterial and bioactive molecule diversity. Invertebrate extracts will be tested also for activities, including inhibitory activity against sirtuin proteins, regulators of cancers and aging related diseases, using a genetic-reporter assay in yeast. 16S gene sequencing, as used commonly in microbial systematics, will be used to profile bacterial community diversities. Factors that will be considered in explaining toxicity and microbial diversity include the sample collection environment and the genetic lineage of host organism. Focusing on whether bacterial and chemotype patterns are co-evolutionary or environmentally mediated, we will include comparisons of ‘cryptic’ species, referring to pairs of invertebrate species recognized as different species recently through genetic assisted taxonomy. This should allow us to determine to what extent the genetic strain of the host invertebrate or the symbiont environment influences the spectrum of medically relevant bioactive compounds (e.g., actinomycin-, bryostatin-, or didemnum-like compounds).
San JoséSan JoséSan Francisco$14,8312014-15 Grant Development Program19025651840
Wetland ecosystem community change in the face of sea level rise
WhitcraftChristineDillonJesseGrant Development Program2014-15
Coastal wetlands are highly productive systems, providing a number of important ecosystem services that are directly and indirectly tied to the presence of vascular plants. Yet, the linkages among the aboveground plant community, benthic diversity and ecosystem function are not well understood, limiting our ability to predict how wetland ecosystems will respond to anthropogenic impacts such as sea level rise (SLR). A multi-pronged approach will be used to compare how increased inundation alters the plant, invertebrate and microbial communities in coastal salt marshes in both Northern and Southern CA. Specifically we address: 1) How will SLR modify the survival and productivity of marsh plants in coastal wetlands?; 2) Will SLR effects on plants and sediment community vary with climate regime and/or with latitude?; and 3) How do changes in the aboveground plant change the decomposer community? And trophic functioning? These questions will be addressed through manipulative field experiments using experimental devices for studying how plants respond to different amounts of tidal inundation. These manipulations will elucidate changes in the plant community and in the resultant structure of the decomposer community (bacterial, plant and benthic invertebrates) with implications for trophic function of the system. Plant and decomposer communities’ response to SLR will be assessed using novel and integrative approaches from wetland and microbial ecology. Plant physiological responses will be tested using a LiCor system, invertebrate community responses using traditional sorting techniques and novel isotope enrichment experiments, and microbial community using molecular fingerprinting and sequencing techniques. These approaches will transform our understanding of the impact of SLR on plant function as well as of the diversity and function of salt marsh decomposers.
Long BeachLong Beach$15,0002014-15 Grant Development Program102159
collapse Year And Program : 2013-14 Rapid Response Program ‎(1)
Detecting the arrival of Fukushima radioisotopes to the California coastline
ManleyStevenRapid Response Program2013-14
In March 2011, the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake off the coast of Japan triggered a tsunami that damaged the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, causing the release of substantial amounts of radioactive material into the environment, including the ocean. Kelp Watch 2014/15 is a scientific campaign using our California surface canopy forming kelp species (Macrocystis pyrifera and Nereocystis luetkeana) as coastal detectors of these released radioisotopes (primarily Cs-134, t½= 2 yr; Cs-137, t½= 30 yr) predicted to arrive along the west coast of North America via ocean currents in 2014-15. These kelps are the ideal coastal sentinel organism for this study because they 1) place most of their biomass in surface water forming large canopies; 2) take-up and concentrate many dissolved inorganic compounds including the radioisotopes from Fukushima (e.g. Cs, 20 fold); 3) are found along the coastline from Baja to Alaska; 4) are easy to collect and prepare for analysis; and 5) form the basis of a highly productive ecosystem. KW2014/15 was initiated by Dr. Manley and is based on collaboration with Dr. Kai Vetter (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), who will provide analysis at the Berkeley Low Background Facility. This effort involves 44 scientists from 33 different academic and government institutions, educational organizations and small businesses. What began as a California centric project has expanded to a total of 43 sites: California (31), Baja Mexico (2), Alaska (3), British Columbia (3), Washington (1) and Oregon (3). Sites in Chile and Tasmania provide “Fukushima-free’ reference material. Kelp sampled from Feb. 2014-March 2015 yielded no evidence of the arrival of Fukushima radiation, although legacy Cs-137 (~0.5 Bq kg-1 dry tissue) from nuclear weapons testing in 1950s and 60s was detected in all samples. Also detected were four naturally occurring radioisotopes, with K-40 being the most abundant (~3,000 Bq kg-1; https://kelpwatch.berkeley.edu/). Anthropogenic I-131, most likely from medical waste, was detected in several southern California locations with highest activity (45-251 Bq kg-1) in kelp from the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Sampling will continue throughout 2015 and into 2016 until Cs-134, with a half-life of two years, will no longer be detectable.
Long Beach$3,6552013-14 Rapid Response Program144
collapse Year And Program : 2013-14 Grant Development Program ‎(7)
Boron in a changing ocean: not so "boring" anymore?
CarranoCarlGrant Development Program2013-14
San Diego$15,0002013-14 Grant Development Program150
The effects of ocean acidity on the toxicity of Heterosigma akashiwo in California waters
CochlanWilliam P.Grant Development Program2013-14
San Francisco$14,9492013-14 Grant Development Program2118
Mathematical modeling of subsurface reservoir contamination in a coastal zone
FominSergeiGrant Development Program2013-14
Chico$11,5992013-14 Grant Development Program2492
A proteomics approach to understanding the regulation of early ovarian development in fish
ForsgrenKristyGrant Development Program2013-14
Fullerton$15,0002013-14 Grant Development Program2457
Hydrodynamic mediation of predator-prey interactions in estuarine sediments
HentschelBrian T.AndersonTodd W.Grant Development Program2013-14
San DiegoSan Diego$11,3782013-14 Grant Development Program19144
Ocean acidification and hypoxia in the California Current: physiological effects on nearshore fishes
LoganCherylGrant Development Program2013-14
Monterey Bay$15,0002013-14 Grant Development Program2376
A mechanistic understanding of the demographic consequences of harvest selection for temperate sex-changing fishes
SteeleMarkHamiltonScottGrant Development Program2013-14
NorthridgeSan José$14,9472013-14 Grant Development Program19972341
collapse Year And Program : 2013-14 Faculty Research Incentive Program ‎(2)
Developing multi-objective hybrid quay crane scheduling tool in California port container terminals
KimJin-LeeFaculty Research Incentive Program2013-14
Long Beach2013-14 Faculty Research Incentive Program2362
Minimizing ecological and carbon footprints of desalination plants in coastal California through alternative desalination technologies
AchilliAndreaEvansTylerLoganCherylLangMargaretFaculty Research Incentive Program2013-14
HumboldtEast BayMonterey BayHumboldt2013-14 Faculty Research Incentive Program2487245923761717
collapse Year And Program : 2012-13 Faculty Research Incentive Program ‎(8)
Protein response of sea urchin embryos to environmental stress utilizing confocal microscopy to identify proteins affected by ultraviolet radiation in sea urchin embryos
AdamsNikkiFaculty Research Incentive Program2012-13
Marine organisms are harmed by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) penetrating the ocean. For example, exposure of echinoderm eggs and embryos to UVR results in delays in cell division, morphological abnormalities and death. Echinoderms, including commercially important sea urchins, are well suited for quantitative studies of environmental stress because their gametes are easily obtained, fertilized, and cultured and they have been used extensively as a model for elucidating the effects of environmental factors such as temperature, oxidative stress, chemical pollutants, and UVR since the early 1900s. Large eggs (80-200 µm) allow single-cell analyses, while abundant quantities of embryos facilitate molecular and biochemical analyses. Additionally, the genome of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has been sequenced and annotation, providing an important tool for predicting and analyzing the proteins that are involved in responses to stresses such as UVR. Like many organisms, early sea urchin embryos develop and respond to stressors primarily through post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Our recent comparative proteomic analysis of the embryos of S. purpuratus revealed many proteins and cellular pathways that respond to UVR during early development. We will build on these studies in collaboration with leaders in confocal imaging and protein analysis to decipher how environmental stress affects protein pathways in early development. In summary, the main goal of this proposal is to procure future funding from the NSF for student-centered research investigating how UVR (and other stressors) affect post-translational modification and localization of proteins in sea urchin embryos using confocal microscopy to identify markers of environmental stress.
San Luis Obispo2012-13 Faculty Research Incentive Program2391
Getting to the bottom of it: Understanding an invasive herbivore’s novel role in a vulnerable seagrass system
BoyerKatharynFaculty Research Incentive Program2012-13
This assigned time award will be used to develop a proposal to the National Science Foundation. I will focus on a system in San Francisco Bay in which an invasive amphipod is exploding in abundance and consuming eelgrass, when it is not known to do so in its native range on the US east coast. This amphipod’s consumption of eelgrass flowering shoots and seeds is a major impediment to restoring this plant from seed and to enhancing genetic diversity in restoration sites that results from doing so. Previously I have shown that if eelgrass is brought in from the amphipod’s native range, the invader far prefers local SF Bay plants. In the proposed project I will evaluate feeding preferences of the amphipod when offered eelgrass from many more locations within its native range. Further, I will collect the amphipod from multiple locations within its native range and reciprocally offer it SF Bay plants along with plants from its native range. This project will assess chemical ecology of the plants, and will utilize genetic analyses on eelgrass and amphipods from throughout the native and introduced range of the amphipod. This research will contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of this invasion and potential mechanisms for the observed novel role of this herbivore in a threatened habitat in San Francisco Bay, and inform invasion ecology more generally by helping to decipher the conditions under which novel behaviors develop.
San Francisco2012-13 Faculty Research Incentive Program2023
Copper concentration as a selective pressure on genomic content of kelp forest microbes
DinsdaleElizabethFaculty Research Incentive Program2012-13
Heavy metal concentrations in the kelp are a selective pressure on the microbial community that could affect both the types of microbes and/or genes that are present in the community. The response of the microbes may affect the normal metabolic activity of the community and potentially increase the number of harmful interaction with the other organisms of the kelp forest. The aim of my proposed research is to investigate the selective pressures of heavy metal load on the species diversity and genomic capacity of the kelp forest microbial community. The proposal will integrate genomic, metagenomic and experimental analysis to scale observations from a single genome to the microbial community’s response to heavy metal pollution and the effect microbial changes may have on kelp forest ecosystem health.
San Diego2012-13 Faculty Research Incentive Program2133

​​Biogeography and physiology of Rhodoliths at Catalina Island​/Demonstration of land-based integrated aquaculture of seaweeds and abalone in California​

EdwardsMatthewFaculty Research Incentive Program2012-13
Dr. Steller and I will write a proposal to seek funds to support experiments designed to collect data on the seasonal diversity and abundance of macroalgae associated with undisturbed and disturbed rhodolith habitats at Catalina Island. This project will then assess patterns of net primary production of these macroalgae in disturbed and undisturbed rhodolith habitats using standard oxygen evolution and carbon uptake chamber experiments. In doing so, this proposal will bring together Dr. Steller’s expertise in rhodolith ecology and Dr. Edwards experience in algal physiological ecology in a truly collaborative effort. This will also involve several students from both MLML and SDSU as part of their graduate training, with one Graduate Traineeship requested. The proposal will be submitted to California Sea Grant in Spring 2013.​

I am working with Dr. Mike Graham (MLML) to revise a NOAA proposal to develop field-based seaweed aquaculture methods that can be utilized in a small industrial setting to enhance the yield and marketability of farmed abalone, while simultaneously decreasing the potential ecological impacts of this industry. MLML is building an aquaculture facility that will support this and we are refocusing our earlier proposal on the more ambitious aspect of the project that involves several 1-3 million gallon ponds that sit adjacent to Moss Landing. Field-based seawee​d aquaculture is not feasible for supporting large-scale abalone farming. This project represents an alliance between two CSU faculty to revise a proposal for integrating the culture of seaweeds (kelp and red algae) and abalone using land based farms in Moss Landing, California. Our goal is to demonstrate the nutritional, economical, and environmental benefits of integration of seaweed/abalone aquaculture at a pilot-scale, and the feasibility and production limitations of commercial-scale land-based kelp cultivation. The proposal will be submitted to the NOAA National Marine Aquacultural Initiative in Spring 2013.
San DiegoSan José2012-13 Faculty Research Incentive Program187
Diversity and function of bacteria in human influenced marine fouling communities: Using Watersipora spp. and associated microbes as a model
LauerAntjeCraigSeanFaculty Research Incentive Program2012-13
Our proposal focuses on the diversity and function of microbial symbionts on colonies of Watersipora spp., highly invasive marine bryozoans that have successfully invaded many coastal areas worldwide, preferentially settling in human influenced and polluted bays and harbors. The water and sediments of these areas are known to be polluted with copper (from antifouling paints) as well as other pollutants. However, Watersipora spp. seem to thrive in these environments, whereas native sessile invertebrate species diversity has declined. The reasons for the success of Watersipora spp. in these habitats are not known. However, heavy metal resistance patterns of sponge-associated bacteria have led to the suggestion that microbial symbionts might be able to transfer heavy metal tolerance to the host sponge. The aim of this collaborative proposal is to investigate the role microbial symbionts may play in the adaptation of W. subtorquata to copper pollution in bays and harbors. We hypothesize that there is a connection between microbial symbionts and invasion of Watersipora spp., and propose that these symbionts help their invasive bryozoan hosts withstand copper toxicity, facilitating their invasions. The methods proposed in our study can be used to investigate associations between microbial symbionts, invertebrate hosts, and pollutants in general, and might be of value for other researchers. By testing whether Watersipora-associated bacteria possess genes that are involved in the production of enzymes that can degrade harmful pollutants such as copper in the immediate environment of the host, we hope to help explain the invasion success of these amazing bryozoans.
BakersfieldHumboldt2012-13 Faculty Research Incentive Program48183
Will California's sea mussels be able to adapt to rising temperatures concomitant with climate change?
LoganCherylFaculty Research Incentive Program2012-13
California’s rocky shoreline attracts millions of visitors each year for recreation, education and collection of flora and fauna for food and decoration. Rocky intertidal communities are particularly sensitive to the potential effects of climate change because they already exist at the extreme edge of both the marine and terrestrial environment. Predicting climate change effects on this ecosystem requires examination of the effects on key ecological species within it. California sea mussels are the functional equivalent of corals to California’s rocky intertidal ecosystems, providing structural habitat for hundreds of intertidal species. California sea mussels also represent a small recreational fishery. Like plants, these sessile marine invertebrates rely on physiological mechanisms to cope with changes in their environment; they cannot move away as adults. Natural periods of heat stress already induce California sea mussel mortality. Given the 1-4°C increase in temperature projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change over the next 100 years, it is unclear how the California sea mussels will cope. Based on the species' natural history, mussels may have little ability to genetically adapt to warmer temperatures. In collaboration with co-PI Dr. Stephen Palumbi (Stanford University), I am developing an NSF full proposal to answer the following question: To what capacity will California sea mussels be able to adapt and/or acclimatize to rising temperatures concomitant with climate change?
Monterey Bay2012-13 Faculty Research Incentive Program2376
Sublethal consequences of pollution on chemically-mediated interactions between consumers and their prey
LongJeremyFernerMattFaculty Research Incentive Program2012-13
Chemical pollution represents an important stressor to modern marine communities. Unfortunately, most studies have failed to address the consequences of pollution in an ecologically meaningful way. This problem largely exists because the two relevant fields, toxicology and marine community ecology, have proceeded independently. Thus, while pollutants have well-described negative impacts on individual organisms, their influence on species interactions and community structure is unknown for marine systems. The paucity of studies examining the ecological consequences of chemical pollutants on marine systems is surprising given that species interactions strongly control marine communities. Scientists and natural resource managers must develop a better understanding of the ecological role of pollutants if we hope to predict and mitigate their consequences. This will be particularly important for coastal management strategies for living shorelines that depend upon healthy ecological interactions and community structure. We propose to examine the influence of pollutants on chemically-mediated interactions between consumers and prey (e.g. herbivores and plants, predators and prey). We will conduct two major types of experiments that examine consumer and prey behavior in contaminated and uncontaminated situations. In flume experiments, we will compare consumer and prey responses to each other when separated by distances of 10s of centimeters in contaminated and uncontaminated treatments under realistic flow. Flume experiments will be complimented by mesocosm feeding preference experiments that examine behavior when consumers and prey are in closer proximity. Experiments will focus on two, two-species interactions in California: Pachygrapsus crab–prey interactions in estuaries and Chlorostoma snail-Silvetia seaweed interactions on rocky shores.
San DiegoSan Francisco2012-13 Faculty Research Incentive Program21132421
Why mommies matter: Elucidating the mechanisms that produce brood-specific responses to ocean acidification in porcelain crabs
StillmanJonathonTsukimuraBrianFaculty Research Incentive Program2012-13
The effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the metabolic physiology porcelain crab embryos and larvae have been shown by two former Stillman MS students (Lina Ceballos and Hayley Carter) to depend on the brood from which the individuals were taken. We propose that aspect of the crabs’ reproductive physiology and/or experience of the parents during the time of gametogenesis may play a role in modifying the sensitivity of offspring to OA, and perhaps other aspects of environmental change. Because most (but probably not all) parental effects are due to maternal provisioning of yolk, mRNAs, and other aspects of the egg. However, the modification of the genome through epigenetic regulation is also a potential site of regulation, and could be from either parent. Epigenetic modification (e.g., DNA methylation, histone acetylation) could happen in response to environmental exposure of the parents. In this project we will develop a NSF proposal that includes a series of experiments to determine how and why broods vary in their response to ocean acidification. These experiments will involve exposing parental crabs to environmental variation, mating them in controlled conditions, and studying performance in response to OA of the embryos. We will measure aspects of reproductive hormone levels, and gene expression of the embryos. The research team includes PI Stillman, who has a core research program studying the environmental physiology of porcelain crabs including their response to OA and temperature at the organismal, biochemical and genomic level, and Co-PI Tsukimura who is an expert in crustacean reproductive physiology.
San FranciscoFresno2012-13 Faculty Research Incentive Program1541676
collapse Year And Program : 2012-13 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program ‎(6)
Benthic mapping of Ventura County estuaries: a collaboration between CSUMB’s Seafloor Mapping Laboratory and CSUCI’s Pacific Institute for Restoration Ecology
AndersonSeanKvitekRikkCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2012-13
Channel IslandsMonterey Bay$10,0002012-13 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program4325
Multiscale geomorphic controls over littoral communities in California
GarzaCoreyAielloIvanoCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2012-13
Monterey BaySan José$9,5002012-13 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program10552
Protein expression profiles in Watersipora spp. and selected microbial associates in response to copper stress
LauerAntjeCraigSeanTomanekLarsCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2012-13
BakersfieldHumboldtSan Luis Obispo$10,0002012-13 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program48183195
Creating a spatially explicit risk assessment of fisheries bycatch for coastal marine mammals
LewisonRebeccaHinesEllenCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2012-13
San DiegoSan Francisco$10,0002012-13 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program13661827
Effect of heavy metals pollution on subsurface sediment bacteria communities in San Francisco Bay
MolloyStephanieCoaleKennethCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2012-13
East BaySan José$10,0002012-13 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program199520
Quantifying shoreline geomorphology and coastal erosion during ENSO and inter-ENSO periods along Morro Bay sandspit, CA, using a vessel-based LiDAR system
RichaudMathieuKvitekRikkCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2012-13
FresnoMonterey Bay$10,0002012-13 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program214325
collapse Year And Program : 2011-12 Faculty Research Incentive Program ‎(8)
The evolution of novel morphologies in fishes: the basal and most diverse group of vertebrates
Crow-SanchezKarenFaculty Research Incentive Program2011-12
San Francisco2011-12 Faculty Research Incentive Program198
RUI: ARTS: Biodiversity of herbivorous sea slugs: how algal diversity and photosynthetic ability affect rates of speciation and endemism
KrugPatrickValdesAngelFaculty Research Incentive Program2011-12
Los AngelesPomona2011-12 Faculty Research Incentive Program206190
Creating a spatially explicit risk assessment of fisheries bycatch: a comparative approach
LewisonRebeccaEllen HinesFaculty Research Incentive Program2011-12
San DiegoSan Francisco2011-12 Faculty Research Incentive Program13661827
Hydrologic prediction uncertainty analysis to control sedimentation of the Morro Bay Estuary
MuletaMisganaFaculty Research Incentive Program2011-12
San Luis Obispo2011-12 Faculty Research Incentive Program2307
Alternative market channels for key California fisheries in a landings constrained environment
PitchonAnaHackettStevenFaculty Research Incentive Program2011-12
Dominguez HillsHumboldt2011-12 Faculty Research Incentive Program15193
Using COAST research to promote ocean science foundation through integrated ​video podcasting, research data-driven exercises ​and social media: curriculum development across the CSU system
ReedDonald Faculty Research Incentive Program2011-12
San José2011-12 Faculty Research Incentive Program2321
Analysis of cyanobacteria presence and toxicity in freshwater environments in the Monterey Bay
SreenivasanAparnaFaculty Research Incentive Program2011-12
Monterey Bay2011-12 Faculty Research Incentive Program179
A global perspective on thermal tolerance limits: transcriptomic and proteomic signals of heat stress in intertidal limpets
TodghamAnneTomanekLarsFaculty Research Incentive Program2011-12
San FranciscoSan Luis Obispo2011-12 Faculty Research Incentive Program2121195
collapse Year And Program : 2010-11 Faculty Research Incentive Program ‎(7)
Porous materials for carbon dioxide capture and prevention of ocean acidification
BuXianhuiFaculty Research Incentive Program2010-11
Long Beach2010-11 Faculty Research Incentive Program2069
Understanding the effects of low tide exposure on intertidal kelps: geographic and species comparisons
BurnafordJenniferNielsenKarinaFaculty Research Incentive Program2010-11
FullertonSonoma2010-11 Faculty Research Incentive Program2049123
Ecology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in the United States Pacific islands and coastal regions
MolloyStephanieLiuLuboFaculty Research Incentive Program2010-11
East BayFresno2010-11 Faculty Research Incentive Program19952073
Supporting primary priorities for the development of management options for genus Eriocheir (mitten crabs)
RawatMamtaFaculty Research Incentive Program2010-11
Fresno2010-11 Faculty Research Incentive Program2071
The role of low molecular weight thiols in Cyanobacteria
TsukimuraBrianFaculty Research Incentive Program2010-11
Fresno2010-11 Faculty Research Incentive Program1676
Development of an autonomous underwater vehicle-based mobile marine life monitoring system (MMLMS)
ClarkChrisMolineMarkLoweChrisFaculty Research Incentive Program2010-11
San Luis ObispoSan Luis ObispoLong Beach2010-11 Faculty Research Incentive Program145096106
Ocean acidification and the public: communicating research through art and science projects
HerskoJuditFabryVickiKamerKristaFaculty Research Incentive Program2010-11
San MarcosSan MarcosSan Francisco2010-11 Faculty Research Incentive Program2072207541
collapse Year And Program : 2010-11 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program ‎(8)
Monitoring a channel depth using the Cal Poly autonomous underwater vehicle and integrated equipment
GarfieldNewellMolineMarkCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2010-11
San FranciscoSan Luis Obispo$5,3002010-11 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program2196
Iron uptake and storage in marine algae and cohabitating bacteria
CarranoCarlMasonAndrewCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2010-11
San DiegoLong Beach$6,5002010-11 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program15022
Protein and gene expression in thermally stressed intertidal limpets: a mechanistic primer to predict the effect of climate change on marine organisms
TodghamAnneTomanekLarsCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2010-11
San FranciscoSan Luis Obispo$8,2002010-11 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program2121195
Collaborative sharing of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry resources at Sacramento State for studies elucidating the biochemical pathway to domoic acid
SmithG. JasonSavageThomasCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2010-11
San JoséSacramento$2,7772010-11 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program69189
Proteomic responses of rocky intertidal organisms to thermal stress: predicting changes in community structure and ecosystem function in response to a warming climate
AllenBengtTomanekLarsCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2010-11
Long BeachSan Luis Obispo$5,0002010-11 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program145195
Utilizing the CSUMB acoustic habitat mapping assets to delineate the shallow-water rhodolith beds at Catalina Island, California
StellerDianaKvitekRikkCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2010-11
San JoséMonterey Bay$5,0002010-11 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program6325
Microsatellite analysis of globally invasive bryozoans (Watersipora spp.) introduced to California
CraigSeanMackieJoshuaCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2010-11
HumboldtSan José$4,8002010-11 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program183190
Do California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis, return to their natal beach to spawn?
ZacherlDanielleMasonAndrewCollaborative Resource Sharing Program2010-11
FullertonLong Beach$6,0802010-11 Collaborative Resource Sharing Program170122
collapse Year And Program : 2009-10 Faculty Research Incentive Program ‎(7)
High resolution fault kinetics, California continental borderland
SimilaGeraldFrancisDanielFaculty Research Incentive Program2009-10
NorthridgeLong Beach2009-10 Faculty Research Incentive Program184186
Development of an integrated seaweed-abalone aquaculture system for sustainable resource use and bioremediation
GrahamMichaelEdwardsMatthewFaculty Research Incentive Program2009-10
San JoséSan Diego2009-10 Faculty Research Incentive Program55187
Interdisciplinary student research along the California and Mexico coasts
MonsmaBradPurcellAlisonRodriguezDonaldLewisCoreyFaculty Research Incentive Program2009-10
Channel IslandsHumboldtChannel IslandsHumboldt2009-10 Faculty Research Incentive Program1651183818391844
Transcriptome and proteome fingerprints of the potential for synergistic effects of ocean acidification and thermal stress along the California coast
StillmanJonathanTomanekLarsFaculty Research Incentive Program2009-10
San FranciscoSan Luis Obispo2009-10 Faculty Research Incentive Program154195
SEAWaRD: Stewardship, Education, and Advocacy through Wetlands Research Data
RossDonnaHentschelBrianGrantMariaFaculty Research Incentive Program2009-10
San DiegoSan DiegoFullerton2009-10 Faculty Research Incentive Program192191194
Transitioning to high value, low volume fisheries in California
HackettStevenPitchonAnaFaculty Research Incentive Program2009-10
HumboldtDominguez Hills2009-10 Faculty Research Incentive Program93151
Predicting the effects of sea level rise on biological communities and carbon flow in coastal salt marshes
DillonJesseWhitcraftChristineKomadaTomokoFaculty Research Incentive Program2009-10
Long BeachLong BeachSan Francisco2009-10 Faculty Research Incentive Program159102166
collapse Year And Program : 2008-09 Faculty Research Incentive Program ‎(4)
Multiscale geomorphologic controls over littoral communities in California
AielloIvanoGarzaCoreyRoblesCarlosFaculty Research Incentive Program2008-09
San JoséMonterey BayLos Angeles2008-09 Faculty Research Incentive Program52105181
Development of a statewide evaluation of the sustainability of seafood options available to consumers
AndersonSeanAloisioSimone GillespieBlakeFaculty Research Incentive Program2008-09
Channel IslandsChannel IslandsChannel Islands2008-09 Faculty Research Incentive Program43149173
Assessing spiny lobster movement behavior: implications for California’s Marine Life Protection Act
HovelKevinLoweChrisFaculty Research Incentive Program2008-09
San DiegoLong Beach2008-09 Faculty Research Incentive Program139106
Developing indices for primary production and harmful algal bloom potential from coastal ocean observing systems data network
McPhee-ShawErikaNielsenKarinaGoldthwaitSarahFaculty Research Incentive Program2008-09
Moss Landing/San JoseSonomaHumboldt2008-09 Faculty Research Incentive Program5712398
collapse Year And Program : Faculty Research Incentive Program ‎(3)
Chemical warfare in the ocean: how Tritonia diomedea preys upon the toxic soft coral Ptilosarcus gurneyi
MurrayJamesAmagataTaroSommerhalterMonikaFaculty Research Incentive Program
East BaySan FranciscoEast Bay Faculty Research Incentive Program183218401837
Evolution and Invasion: speciation, ecological differentiation and microbial symbiosis in the exotic bryozoans Bugula neritina and Watersipora subtorquata in California
LauerAntjeCraigSean MackieJoshuaFaculty Research Incentive Program
BakersfieldHumboldtSan José Faculty Research Incentive Program48183190
Molecular regulation of domoic acid biosynthesis in Pseudo-nitzschia spp.
SavageThomasSmithG. JasonFaculty Research Incentive Program
Sacramento Faculty Research Incentive Program18969