A Discussion Sponsored by the California Education Policy
The California State University Institute for Education
The California Education Policy Seminar
provides a neutral forum for state-level education policy makers and
educators to gain in-depth knowledge about emerging policy issues. The
seminars contribute to the development, modification and enhancement of
education reform initiatives in California.
The California Education Policy Seminar is funded by ARCO, Walter S.
Johnson Foundation, the Walter and Elise Haas Fund, the Weingart Foundation,
Pacific Telesis and the Stuart Foundations.
The California State University Institute for Education Reform
is a university-based policy center focusing on elementary and secondary
school issues. Located on the California State University, Sacramento campus,
the Institute is supported by the California State University Chancellor's
Additional printedcopies of this report including charts
may be obtained by contacting:
The CSU Institute for Education Reform
6000 J Street
Sacramento, CA 95819-6018
Telephone: (916) 278-4600
FAX: (916) 278-5014
Introduction: California's Worsening Teacher Shortage
The New Realities of Teacher Demand
Issues related to teacher quality and supply have been a part of the
policy dialogue surrounding California's education system virtually since
its inception. The demand for more and better teachers has been a constant
companion to California's growth and emergence as an engine of both technological
and sociological innovation. Yet the current state of alarm over the inadequate
supply of fully-trained and qualified teachers in California is different
from past such episodes in some very significant ways:
The Effects of Class Size Reduction
The recent implementation of class size reduction in the early elementary
grades (now being supplemented by calls for expansion of this initiative
to additional grade levels) has heightened the strain on California's pool
of teachers and teacher candidates, and thereby focused policy-makers' attention
on this key issue. The implementation of class size reduction in a state
where enrollment is already expected to grow by a million students in the
next eight years is creating unprecedented demands on California's ability
to keep pace with its need for new teachers.
The Potential Benefits of Recent Recruitment and Retention Efforts
A number of local, regional and statewide efforts have begun in recent
years with the common goal of recruiting, training and bringing into the
workforce more and better-trained new teachers than in the past-efforts
which are not widely known and which could have increased benefits for all
involved if coordination amongst them was made a priority.
The Improved Fiscal Outlook For Education
The fiscal environment for education in California has improved dramatically
due to the growing economy, the funding guarantees put in place by Proposition
98 and the President's decision to focus national attention on education
and education reform in his FY 1997-98 budget proposal. The timing is right
for a thorough reconsideration and strengthening of California's efforts
to recruit and retain the best teachers possible in our education system.
The California Statewide Task Force on Teacher Recruitment
The combination of circumstances described above points to the very significant
challenges and opportunities for the state's education leaders as class
size reduction efforts continue. In January of 1996, recognizing these
challenges, the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC), in
collaboration with the state Department of Education and the California
State University Institute for Education Reform, and with support from the
Stuart Foundations, awarded a competitively-bid contract to Recruiting New
Teachers, Inc. (RNT) to assist the Commission in developing a coherent,
comprehensive action plan for increasing and improving teacher recruitment,
induction and retention. The sponsors and RNT proceeded to convene a task
force made up of 23 representatives of various elements of the California
education and teaching establishments, to explore key issues through interviews
with education stakeholders and research on major policy issues, and to
examine teacher recruitment efforts occurring nationwide. The result of
this work is the Statewide Teacher Recruitment Action Plan.
February 11, 1997 Seminar
On February 11, 1997, a group of 50 state officials, local education
leaders and academics gathered in Sacramento to discuss teacher recruitment
and class size reduction issues in general, and the Task Force's draft report
in particular, in an effort to synthesize and identify key points for policy-makers'
The major presenter at the seminar was David Haselkorn, President for
the past eight years of the Boston-based non-profit company Recruiting New
Teachers, Inc. and Senior Policy Advisor to the National Commission on Teaching
and America's Future. Mr. Haselkorn serves as consultant to the Statewide
Task Force on Teacher Recruitment. Following his presentation, an active
discussion occurred of teacher recruitment issues and potential means of
addressing them. Mr. Haselkorn's presentation and the subsequent discussion
are detailed in later sections of this report.
Early in the seminar, Sam Swofford, Executive Director of the Commission
on Teacher Credentialing, suggested two elements as priority issues requiring
policy-makers' prompt attention and concern:
The Need For Attention to Competency Standards
There are currently over 5,000 elementary school teachers in California
working in classrooms under temporary emergency permits, and the CTC believes
this number will increase to at least 8,000 as a result of the new demand
generated by class size reduction. Meanwhile, more and more emergency permits
are being processed without the expectation that the permitees will stay
in the system and complete requirements for their teaching credentials.
The need to recruit new teacher candidates into the career pipeline-and
then retain them through effective training, internship, mentoring and induction
programs-has never been more immediate.
The Need For Support of Effective Induction Programs
Programs that assist fledgling teachers in tackling the complex and challenging
real-life situations and issues they often face as new teachers in the classroom
are an essential component of addressing the current teacher shortage.
The Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment program (BTSA) has proven very
successful in increasing retention of new teachers in the system, and Governor
Wilson has proposed that BTSA receive a $10 million enhancement in FY 1997-98
to increase its accessibility beyond the 7 percent of new teachers it is
currently able to reach.
David Haselkorn: Developing Strategies for Responding to the "Demographic
(Note: Here and throughout this report, comments made by individuals
participating in the February 11 seminar are summarized without quotation;
all text contained herein should be regarded as paraphrasing and/or synthesizing
what was actually said, and not as quotes attributable either to Mr. Haselkorn
or to any other participant.)
Origins of the Statewide Task Force
Work on developing avenues to address the need for more new teachers
in California was already well underway before class size reduction's recent
emergence as a major issue for state policy-makers. At a national conference
on teacher recruitment conference in Coral Gables, Florida, five years ago
("Pathways to Teaching," sponsored by RNT), representatives of
a number of teacher recruitment programs from California convened and realized
they were operating essentially in isolation from one another (all appreciated
the irony of having to travel to Florida in order to meet their colleagues).
Realizing they should be working together, they developed a network and
began meeting regularly. Many participated in a 1994 CTC sponsored conference
on teacher recruitment and development which featured RNT's research on
pathways to teaching.
What RNT ultimately found in California was a patchwork of very effective,
highly innovative programs operating for the most part in isolation from
one another; a piecemeal landscape of innovation and effectiveness without
much connectedness or cohesion. What developed out of this discovery and
the efforts of California programs to become connected with one another
was a move to create a strategic approach to teacher recruitment in the
state-hence the California Statewide Task Force on Teacher Recruitment was
The Task Force's effort is aimed at developing a flexible framework,
not simply a cookbook or a catalog. The framework highlights a range of
programs that are working today either in California or around the nation,
and suggests ways to connect them conceptually and operationally in a manner
that can be expanded and modified as needed, and that incorporates as much
as possible of the work that's already going on, so as not to reinvent the
The Scope of the Need
California is expected to need to hire somewhere in the neighborhood
of 260,000 to 300,000 new teachers in the next ten years. This assumes
the continuation of the current class size reduction program and a slight
acceleration in the current attrition/retirement rate (currently, California
loses six percent of its teaching workforce every year to attrition and
another two percent to retirements). Policy changes and economic factors
may influence how these numbers develop in reality, but they are reasonable
benchmarks for measuring the need as we now understand it.
There are several key reasons for this growing need:
Rising Enrollments: A Million New Students
By 2005, California's schools are expected to serve over 6.3 million
students, 1 million more than are served today.
Class Size Reduction
Increasing enrollments combined with reduced class sizes equals a tremendous
need for new teachers.
Aging of the Teacher Workforce
The average age of California's public school teacher workforce is almost
45, and over 30 percent of California teachers currently have more than
20 years' experience.
Need for Teachers of Color
Sixty percent of California students are people of color, versus just
20 percent of their teachers.
Demand for Urban Teachers - Acute and Growing
The greatest needs are in the toughest classrooms with the weakest support
system for new teachers.
The combination of increasing enrollments and California's aging teacher
workforce constitutes a demographic double-whammy with significant consequences
for teacher demand. Adding class size reduction to the mix ensures California
will face a major challenge as it attempts to build a framework for new
teacher recruitment, induction and retention.
The growing number of teachers operating on emergency teaching permits
further demonstrates the gap in fully qualified teachers.
Table (Haselkorn slide # 4)
Single Subject 6,095
Multiple Subject 5,928
Bilingual Education 625
Special Education 3,628
Among the emergency permits teachers noted in the table above, approximately
2,100 are math and science teachers. Nearly 50 percent of the currently
credentialed science teachers in California will retire within the next
10 years. There are also chronic shortages in bilingual and special education;
in 1990 the deficit in bilingual teachers was 14,000. In California today,
there is one Spanish-speaking teacher for every 90 Spanish-speaking students;
there is one Vietnamese-speaking teacher for every 900 Vietnamese-speaking
students; and there is one Hmong-speaking teacher for every 15,000 Hmong-
or Laotian-origin students. The need here is critical.
The pressure to bring new teachers into the system is great, but it must
always be placed within the context of adequate preparation. Just filling
classrooms with adults is not acceptable; California needs highly capable
teachers with training who can fill specific needs and niches such as assisting
limited English-speaking students to master English. Sending emergency
waiver people through a revolving door into and out of the profession is
a waste of resources, does damage to the children in the classrooms involved
and does damage to the systems in the school districts in which they teach.
We need to come up with a comprehensive approach.
Pie Chart (Haselkorn slide # 9)
New and First Time Credentials in California (1994-95)
Emergency Permit 25.3%
In 1994-95, over 25 percent of new credentials in California were emergency
permits, and that number is going up. These numbers and trends were disturbing-and
rising-before class size reduction. With class size reduction, this issue
has become (as Michael Kirst described it in Education Week) "the 800-pound
gorilla of education reform in California." We can coax that gorilla
back into a nice habitat-if we work together to build and implement a comprehensive
framework for meeting the state's teacher recruitment goals and to build
the teacher candidate pool and expand the pipeline into teaching.
Addressing the Need: Task Force Mission and Recommendations
The Task Force's mission is "to develop a comprehensive strategic
plan for addressing California's serious teacher recruitment challenges."
To that end, the Task Force's recommendations seek to:
Expand the pool of prospective teachers;
Strengthen the pipeline into teaching across the career continuum; and
Remove unnecessary barriers to teaching careers.
With regard to the latter element, it is important to stress the word
unnecessary. There was no inclination or sentiment among any of the Task
Force members to lower standards. In fact, there was strong sentiment in
general that standards for teaching needed to be raised, because the challenge
of teaching is growing in California. However, there are some barriers
in California that the Task Force identified as preventing individuals who
might otherwise pursue teaching as a career from doing so. The recommendations
sought to address these barriers, to ensure there is not just an adequate
pool of candidates but also a strong pipeline into the teaching profession.
In exploring the obstacles to building a larger and stronger teaching
force, the Task Force identified two very damaging paradigms at work in
California's education system. First is the idea that teachers are born
and not made, that preparation and expertise don't matter. The second is
that schools of education and school districts exist in relatively splendid
isolation from one another-that schools of education are the producers and
school districts the consumers of their product. The vision of the Task
Force was to move forward as collaborators, joint stakeholders with common
interests who must communicate effectively with one another to improve the
The Task Force identified 33 recommendations for improving teacher recruitment,
induction and retention in California; 11 of these were singled out as priority
recommendations that should be implemented as quickly as possible because
they show the most promise for short-term results in building and expanding
the pipeline into teaching. These were the Task Force's priority recommendations
(a complete list of their recommendations is included in this report as
Develop a California-Specific Public Service Announcement (PSA) Campaign
Generate News Coverage of Teacher Need and Opportunities in California
Create a "What It Takes To Teach in California" Brochure
Develop a "California Careers in Teaching Handbook"
Establish a California Center/Clearinghouse on Teaching Careers
Develop a Prospective Teacher Helpline and Referral Database
Create a Respondent Database via Helpline and Response Cards
Expand the Paraprofessional Teacher Training Program
Expand the Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) Program
Link the Mentor Teacher Program to New Teacher Support
Expanding the Pool
The bulk of the Task Force's recommendations addressed its first goal:
expanding the pool of potential teachers.
Public Service Announcements
The recommendation to create California-specific teacher recruitment
PSAs is based upon PSA initiatives in other regions of the country. The
numbers from RNT's national teacher recruitment PSA have been very encouraging:
over a million calls, a response rate of 33 percent individuals of color,
58 percent individuals with a bachelor's degree or better. PSAs have proven
to be highly effective at building the pool of potential teachers. They
are also highly effective in providing greater prominence and positive images
for the teaching profession, which is a significant piece of the puzzle.
They must, however, be matched with a referral mechanism and some sort
of information clearinghouse in order to do more than simply raise esteem
An aggressive outreach campaign to the news media is also needed, not
only to get the message out about California's urgent teacher recruitment
needs, but also to draw attention to the successful models identified in
the Task Force report. The news about education both here and around the
nation tends to be unrelentingly negative, so the Task Force felt strongly
that a positive outreach campaign was needed to provide greater balance.
The helpline and database proposals are designed to generate over time
a statewide teacher job bank, with requests for information and interest
in teaching being matched up with teacher training resources and teacher
recruitment needs. The intent is that this would all occur under the aegis
of a California Center for Teaching Careers, a recommendation that is the
focal point for this framework.
California's BTSA program may be the best state teacher induction program
in the nation; the biggest problem with it presently is that, due to inadequate
funding, less than 10 percent of new teachers in California have access
to it. Along with expanding access to and improving screening for teacher
internship programs, expanding BTSA is undoubtedly one of the most immediately
effective things California could do to reduce attrition and improve teaching
in this state. Stronger training programs for mentor teachers are also
needed to strengthen and expand these efforts.
Stakeholder meetings at the district level are also vital, particularly
in the larger districts. Union leaders, human resources directors, superintendents,
deans of the schools of education and community groups need to sit down
together and assess their needs and resources at the community level in
order to develop this common stakeholder approach to teacher recruitment
Strengthening the Pipeline
Strengthening the pipeline into the teaching profession has to start
at the pre-collegiate level.
Chart (Haselkorn slide #28)
Strengthen the Pipeline into Teaching
(box) Precollegiate and Community College Programs
(box) Traditional and Non-Traditional Programs
(box) Expanded Induction Programs
The career continuum needs to start with future educator clubs, teaching
magnet programs and fellowships, and with better articulation between community
college programs and high schools, as well as with state universities.
Another key recommendation is to strengthen the pipeline for paraprofessionals
to become fully licensed teachers. Here is one of the great success stories
in education in recent years. These individuals have repeatedly demonstrated
the knowledge and commitment needed to succeed in teaching, even as many
of them serve in the toughest schools and classrooms in the state. Their
knowledge of their own communities and commitment to bettering them results-along
with the completion of their formal training and certification-in reduced
attrition rates and greater community support for neighborhood schools.
Removing Unnecessary Barriers
The Task Force felt that this was an important area which was nonetheless
somewhat beyond its charge, so the recommendations here are not meant to
be final nor comprehensive. The key issues are CBEST accessibility and
CBEST test preparation. Again, the Task Force is not suggesting any desire
to lower standards for CBEST; it is concerned with making sure that the
test and test preparation resources are more widely accessible to the state's
pool of potential teachers.
Remove Unnecessary Barriers
slide #30 from presentation
In addition, candidate screening and selection processes need to be overhauled,
particularly in large urban districts. Districts around the nation have
begun re-examining the designs of their in-house recruitment efforts, to
look at ways that technology and better screening can create a more efficient
processing system for prospective teaching candidates, both in terms of
expanding the numbers of candidates who can be reviewed, and of expanding
the efficiency and effectiveness with which they are reviewed. We clearly
should concentrate our recruiting efforts within California's boundaries,
while also streamlining the interstate transfer process, particularly with
regard to the timing and accessibility of CBEST. Greater recruitment from
the reserve pool and retiree ranks is another good option which may require
a review of related concerns such as pension rules.
None of these steps is a magic bullet; they are all part of a comprehensive
framework for increasing the teacher candidate pool and building a stronger
pipeline into teaching. The teacher recruitment and development system
needs growth in capacity to meet the state's recruitment needs. Then, once
teachers enter the profession, we need improved and expanded induction programs
to increase retention rates and new incentives for the continuous development
of knowledge and skills of the existing teaching force. We can't be thinking
we only have to prepare a teacher once for the challenges they may be facing
ten years down the road.
Forging a Statewide Teacher Recruitment Plan For California: A Discussion
QUESTION / COMMENT: This is the first time there's been an effort to
address these issues that avoids finger-pointing, and for that reason it
seems to have some real promise. Let me mention points regarding some of
the issues you've mentioned, points that I think should be reflected in
the Task Force's priorities. First, we wouldn't have so many emergency
permit teachers if our colleges and universities would give candidates the
course availability and accessibility they need to complete their degrees
and credentials. Second, some of the problems with CBEST accessibility
could be addressed with better timing of test offerings and quicker results
from the test administrators. And third, we must streamline the interstate
transfer system-it's ridiculous to ask a fully credentialed teacher from
another state to go back and earn a new credential or Master's degree in
California. Finally, despite all good efforts and intentions, this plan
will not be successful without funding.
HASELKORN: One of the benefits of the timing of this seminar is that
we are still engaged in finalizing the Task Force report's recommendations.
Your comments about priorities will be very helpful as we refine the document.
Our focus in establishing priorities was to identify the most immediately
available measures with the most immediate effects. With respect to the
interstate transfer issue, while we agree this is a critical issue, we didn't
want to jump ahead of the SB 1422 Advisory Committee's work. With respect
to the rest of your comments, I agree.
QUESTION / COMMENT: One barrier I didn't hear mentioned is the six-unit
minimum requirement at CSU (Note: under this rule, a one-unit or three-unit
course costs the student the same amount as six units of university coursework).
Teachers need a lot of scheduling flexibility while they are finishing
their credential and training, and this six unit minimum rule is a real
barrier. We also need state funding for summer courses, particularly to
increase access for people pursuing non-traditional routes into teaching.
Finally, in an earlier draft of the report there was a specific reference
to teacher cadet programs (such as are in place in South Carolina), which
are a really good long-term strategy for bringing young people into the
QUESTION / COMMENT: The thrust of the report is building up our teacher
corps in California. How does this effort integrate with the SB 1422 Advisory
RESPONSE: The Commission on Teacher Credentialing is, under SB 1422,
sponsoring a comprehensive review of the existing teacher credentialing
process, standards and recruitment practices, and the SB 1422 panel will
likely include the Statewide Teacher Recruitment Task Force's report as
part of the package it recommends to the CTC. The CTC would like to co-sponsor
legislation incorporating these and related credentialing and recruiting
recommendations. Everyone agrees that high standards are essential; the
goal should be to create a more cohesive, coherent system. We need to look
carefully at how these issues all fit together and who will take the lead
in pursuing each of them, building on the strong spirit of collaboration
present among the stakeholders involved in this ongoing discussion.
QUESTION / COMMENT: We have experienced a great deal of success in the
field with paraprofessionals making the transition to teaching. It is important
to encourage them to try taking the CBEST early in the process so that they
can identify any academic problems areas and address them through coursework
before they take the test again. We also need more summer course offerings
for prospective teachers and better integration of credentialing programs
with undergraduate programs.
QUESTION / COMMENT: Fourteen percent of the active teaching force in
the Los Angeles Unified School District today are operating under emergency
permits. And yet we have less than one percent in university internship
programs. If we are going to make internships a key part of this recruitment
plan, we need to maximize opportunities for university internships. We
also need a stronger funding base for BTSA, especially grant funds to support
bringing paraprofessionals through the system into teaching.
RESPONSE: With the signing of AB 18 (Mazzoni) today, we now have $4.5
million in additional resources for university internships. I think most
of the CSU campuses have university internships in the special education
area; not all have them in the multiple subject area, but I think that's
really changing and we're seeing, especially in the urban campuses, a strong
effort to get these programs up and running.
QUESTION / COMMENT: A bill was introduced by Assemblyman Scott (AB 351)
that would set up a loan fund to help paraprofessionals pursue full credentialing.
If they give five years service as a teacher, the loan would be forgiven.
It's one more potential piece of the puzzle we're looking at today.
QUESTION / COMMENT: The role of independent institutions should play
a significant part of this policy review and discussion, because 37 percent
of California's teachers today are prepared at independent universities
and colleges. There are 90 independent institutions providing teacher education
in California today. In many cases independents are better able to respond
to market forces and newly identified training needs. The presence of the
independents is important to underscore because student aid is sometimes
targeted only to public institutions. For example, independent institutions
prepared probably over 80 percent of the bilingual teachers in Ventura County,
however, they just lost their federal money to pay tuition costs.
QUESTION / COMMENT: This is a good example of the need for more collaboration
between the public and private institutions. We've seen isolated cases
of this like cooperation between CSU Dominguez Hills and Loyola Marymount;
we need to see it happen more often. Keep in mind that National University
and Chapman turn out more teachers in California than any single state institution.
We've talked about BTSA and university internships; another program worth
mentioning in the same context is the Literacy Corps, the program that provides
$5 million for college students to serve as tutors for elementary school
students. It helps college students give something back to the community
and can be a valuable recruiting device as well.
QUESTION / COMMENT: Could you comment on what you would identify as
a particular strength, and also perhaps our greatest weakness or area of
need here in California?
HASELKORN: California has excellent para-educators programs, some of
which are now national models. It also has some excellent precollegiate
programs and community college transition programs. The BTSA program, even
though not fully funded, is the strongest statewide model for induction
programs in the nation. There is a great depth of expertise about teacher
recruitment and development throughout the state. California has a strong
commitment from both the public and the private institutions and an enlightened
philanthropic community. However, California's size, diversity and political
complexity challenges its ability to bring these things together into some
kind of coherent framework. It's always been my contention that California
has more of the elements of a comprehensive solution to issues of teacher
recruitment and retention than any state that I know of-but that it also
presents greater challenges than any state. The key is to bring the leading
stakeholders together like this and forge a common strategy to be carried
through the legislative and regulatory processes.
QUESTION / COMMENT: People who come up through paraprofessional programs
generally know their community well and have a high success rate as teachers.
Mentor support is very important to keep paraprofessionals on track toward
becoming teachers; we need to make sure we both recruit and retain.
QUESTION / COMMENT: UCLA just launched an undergraduate minor in education
and the response has been overwhelmingly positive. Every department on
campus has expressed an interest in the program. It's essential in building
this pipeline into teaching that we support quality alternative methods
of bringing people in; we need to think creatively about how we do this.
Apprenticeship and internship programs rely heavily on the quality of the
mentor teachers-we need strategies to provide greater training and institutional
support for the mentors as well as the students. The California Subject
Matter Project is an example of a program whose structure could also be
used to develop teachers as mentors.
QUESTION / COMMENT: One of the major challenges we face in California,
particularly in the UC system, is recruiting, developing and retaining math
and science teachers. There are very often financial incentives present
that tend to draw people to other career paths. In addition, UC academic
requirements and the scaling back of remediation programs leads to real
questions about UC's ability to recruit students from urban communities
in particular to teach math and science.
HASELKORN: You're right to worry about this. Between retirement, attrition,
lack of expertise and a lack of diversity, California is facing some very
serious challenges with regard to the lack of diversity in its math and
science faculties. Chances are 50 percent today that a minority child in
an inner-city school will have a poorly prepared math or science teacher.
We need a concerted effort by stakeholders to turn this around. Teachers'
unions should play a significant role in this discussion, because a great
deal of innovative professional development is done in the union context.
QUESTION / COMMENT: The Assumption Program for Loans in Education (APLE),
a state-supported program in existence since [year???] rewards 500 students
every year with three years of loan assumption payments if they commit to
teach in schools in low-income areas or in subject areas where teacher shortages
exist. A study has already shown higher retention rates for teachers in
this program, and the program is relatively easy to administer. There was
another program-the Douglas scholarship program-that provided federal grants
for teacher recruitment, but it was discontinued last year. Several years
ago the Legislature also expanded the CalGrant program to give students
in teacher credentialing programs a fifth year of grant eligibility; this
was a good initiative that could be reinstituted.
HASELKORN: Studies have been done of loan forgiveness programs in North
Carolina that indicate they work well initially, but when the loan period
ends, the attrition rate shoots up. The key seems to be the lack of a strong
induction program. Here in California you have at least the potential for
a seamless system with the APLE program and an expanded BTSA program that
prepares people well and then supports them in their initial forays into
the classroom. At the federal level, the Congress is going through its
semi-regular rethinking of the postsecondary education act, with an eye
toward Title V's teacher recruitment provisions; this is something we should
all be following.
QUESTION / COMMENT: The reciprocity issue is another key element of
teacher recruitment. A good place for California to begin on this front
might be to grant reciprocity to teachers who have been National Board-certified.
Another important issue is remediation; we need to focus more on in-progress
assessments and achieving academic goals in high school in order to reduce
the amount of remediation being done at the collegiate level.
QUESTION / COMMENT: Two items in this report should be strong priorities:
expanding bilingual teacher recruitment and improving the integration of
all these good programs like BTSA and the paraprofessional programs with
HASELKORN: Integration, particularly of the paraprofessional programs,
has already been suggested as the 12th priority item for the Task Force's
report. It's worth noting also in the context of your comment that paraprofessional
programs typically get high minority participation rates.
QUESTION / COMMENT: Strong, consistent support for and mentoring of
beginning teachers is really an essential part of the process of training,
development, induction and retention. Support from mentor teachers often
times makes the difference for many new teachers between sinking and swimming.
Teachers also need to understand that they do not walk out of a credentialing
program a finished product; they need to recognize that learning is a continuous,
lifelong process for everyone, including teachers.
QUESTION / COMMENT: Four points: (1) the media always focuses attention
on the weak links in the long chain which is education, e.g. the shortage
of math and science instructors-we need to draw attention to the strong
links in the chain as well; (2) 50 percent of lower division math and science
majors drop out, at least in part because of poor university instruction;
(3) we must improve the daily professional lives, workplace climate and
culture of teachers (this is one reason why BTSA is so important); and (4)
we must connect these issues with school boards and make them aware of their
QUESTION / COMMENT: It's really almost impossible to overstate the importance
of introducing new teachers into the life of the profession. Doing this
well and with a great deal of attention to supportive induction methods
is really the key to the professional development of teachers, and the report
should make this point very strongly.
QUESTION / COMMENT: It's essential to understand and appreciate the
links between school reform and teacher education and teacher induction.
These are all parts of the same picture in California and each needs to
be addressed in the context of the others.
There was wide agreement among those present at the February 11 seminar
that the key issue a teacher recruitment action plan must address is the
fragmentation currently present in California's teacher recruitment, induction
and retention efforts. We should be taking much greater advantage of the
range of effective programs present in the state than we are at present.
Unfortunately, California's legislative tradition of individual bill authorship
(rather than an omnibus approach) makes a comprehensive approach to teacher
recruitment issues difficult.
At the same time, the elements are all present for the emergence of a
coherent framework for the state's efforts. We must take advantage of the
momentum which has been established. One thing everyone must understand
is the urgency attached to this issue. California's needs in the area
of teacher recruitment are very large and growing steadily with the implementation
of class size reduction.
Key elements to consider in pursuing the Task Force's recommendations
(which are included in this report as Appendix A) are:
The current set of circumstances supports the concept of public-private
partnerships and the undertaking could certainly benefit from private support
and vision (it has already benefited greatly from the support of philanthropic
community). The business community has in fact driven substantial portions
of the education reform movement in California. But a dedicated funding
source-most likely a public one-is essential to put this strategic plan
into place and keep it there.
The 1997-98 Governor's Budget proposes a $5 million augmentation to the
CSU system for an Economic Development Initiative. Some portion of these
funds could be dedicated to increasing the capacity of teacher preparation
programs. In addition, the state has received over $40 million in federal
Goals 2000 funds. The Legislature and Governor annually decide on expenditure
priorities for these monies. Again, some portion of these funds should
be dedicated to teacher recruitment efforts.
Class size reduction is obviously increasing the urgency of this issue,
and legislative deadlines are looming constantly. We need to consider timing
issues such as whether foundations could begin funding elements of what
the Task Force is proposing, such as the clearinghouse, with state funding
following at the appropriate time in the legislative cycle. Recruiting
New Teachers can help ensure that implementation of some of the easier elements
(such as the California-specific PSAs) happens quickly once the commitment
A number of bills have been introduced to implement portions of the Statewide
Teacher Recruitment Plan. these include:
SB 824 (Leroy Greene) which would establish a California Center for Teaching
Careers to carry out a variety of duties related to recruiting qualified
individuals into the teaching profession. these duties would include developing
statewide public service announcements, distributing effective recruitment
publications, providing information to prospective teachers regarding admission
to and enrollment into teacher preparation programs, and creating a job
bank for qualified teachers who are seeking employment in schools;
AB 352 (Jack Scott) which would create a Professional Teacher Loan Assumption
AB 353 (Scott Wildman) which would significantly expand the Paraprofessional
Teacher Training program; and
AB 1266 (Kerry Mazzoni) which would augment the Beginning Teacher Support
and Assessment program.
The 1997 Budget Bill includes $10 million for the expansion of the Beginning
Teacher Support and Assessment Program (BTSA).
Enactment of these measures would serve to implement the recommendations
identified as high priority by the Statewide Teacher Recruitment Task Force.
Special Note: The Statewide Teacher Recruitment Action Plan reviewed
and discussed by seminar participants was in draft form at the time. based
on comments from the seminar, as well as from the CTC and a variety of other
stakeholders, the plan has now been finalized. Copies of the Task Force's
final report are available from the CTC at [address, phone number].
Appendix A: Recommendations of the Statewide Teacher Recruitment Task
(coming soon to the web site)