Budgetary Challenges: First-Year Implementation To Increase Ratio of Tenured Faculty, $42.9 million
For the past three years, the CSU has been faced with enrollment challenges that significantly exceeded
enrollment growth funding provided by the state. To accommodate this student demand for access, campuses
have employed a number of faculty members on one-time and temporary bases to enroll as many students as
reasonably possible while maintaining the quality and integrity of CSU academic programs. One area that
has assisted in this effort is the hiring of temporary faculty to address undergraduate course demand and
increasing admissions of first-time freshmen as a proportionate share of new enrollment growth.
In May 2001, the state legislature identified this reliance on temporary faculty, as opposed to permanent
(tenured and tenure-track) faculty, in institutions of higher education to assist with meeting the challenge of
student access demand (ACR 73). ACR 73 identified serious concern within the legislature and at the CSU over
the increasing reliance on temporary faculty, as opposed to permanent (tenured and tenure-track) faculty,
in institutions of higher education. There is growing alarm that recent hiring trends in higher education,
necessitated by recovery from prior-year budget deficiencies, competitive salary lags, increasing student
demand, and limited enrollment growth funding support, upsets an appropriate balance between tenured/
tenure-track faculty and lecturer faculty. The trend is important because tenured and tenure-track faculty
bear the primary responsibility for student advising, program development and revision, and participation in
shared governance. When the proportion of tenure/tenure-track faculty declines within the CSU, the quality of
these efforts also wanes.
In furtherance of these and other efforts, as well as the continuing concerns raised by the legislature in 2001,
the 2008/09 CSU budget plan includes a request for $42.9 million to implement the first phase of the eight-year
comprehensive effort to increase the percentage of tenured and tenure-track faculty.
|Improve Current Employees Tenure/Tenure-Track Faculty Ratio
|Increase Percentage of Tenure/Tenure-Track Faculty
|Improve CSU Student Faculty Ratio to 18:1 First-Year Cost
|Total First-Year Implementation Cost Request
The CSU’s most recently available data indicate that lecturers make up more than one-third of the total
full-time equivalent faculty (FTEF) positions in the system. Lecturers account for a smaller percentage of the
total FTEF because the CSU employs most lecturers on a part-time basis. Lecturers made up 27.7 percent
of the faculty FTEF in 1984. By fall 2001, lecturers had grown to represent 36.2 percent of the total FTEF.
Despite CSU efforts since fall 2001 and adoption of ACR 73, state budget reductions and unfunded enrollment
demand have resulted in an increase in the number of lecturers to approximately 37 percent of CSU full-time
The data clearly indicate that the number of CSU lecturers has grown significantly over the last two decades,
whereas the number of tenured and tenure-track faculty has remained nearly constant. It is estimated that
lecturers now deliver over one-half of all the instruction (in terms of student credit units earned) offered by
the CSU. Lecturers have proven their abilities through years of service to CSU students. Lecturers are dedicated
professionals and skilled teachers who offer expert instruction. However, the CSU implementation working
group recognized that the nature of lecturers’ employment relationship with the university results in a series
of problems that negatively impact the quality of the overall educational experience offered by the CSU. These
concerns grow more acute as the proportion of lecturers employed by the CSU rises.
The CSU’s goal is to achieve a proportion of 75 percent over eight years without jeopardizing the employment
status of current lecturers. The CSU anticipates that many of the lecturers currently employed will apply for
and possess the qualifications to compete successfully in the national searches conducted by the CSU. Even if
this did not happen, the decline in lecturer FTEF can be accommodated by attrition and will not require layoffs.
Given the difficulty of attracting new faculty to CSU campuses in many parts of the state, the eight-year plan
was believed to be challenging, but achievable. It identified the need to conduct from 1,800 to 2,000 faculty
searches per year over the eight-year period. With adequate funding, the plan was structured to achieve an
annual increase of 1.5 percent in the tenured/tenure-track faculty percentage and an annual decrease in the
student faculty ratio (SFR) of approximately 0.15 per year.