# Numerals

** Spelling Out**

Spell out the numbers one through nine, including the ordinal form *(first, ninth), *except for GPA, credit hours, percentages, decimals, book sections and pages, or when the number is part of the official term, such as 7th Fleet.

*She has a 4.00 GPA.*

*He is taking 6 credit hours this semester.*

*That’s 5 percent more than it was last week.*

*See Chapter 3, page 7 for the answer.*

*He is the third professor so honored.*

Use figures in a range or series where at least one of the numbers is more than two digits *(an eight-week program,* but*an 8- to 12-week period).* Do *not *use both a figure and a word to indicate one number. (He had three (3) classes.)

**Beginning a Sentence**

Spell out a number that begins a sentence, except if that number is a year. *(1976 was the nation’s bicentennial. Thirty-six students attended.)*

**Adjacent Numbers**

When two numbers are adjacent to each other in a sentence, use a combination of a numeral and a spelled-out number. If one of the numbers is a unit of measurement, keep that as a numeral. *(We had sixteen 4-foot boards.)* Otherwise, spell out the shorter of the two numbers. *(The copy center reproduced 750 eight-page workbooks.)*

**Large Figures**

For numbers of four or more digits, include a comma *(1,530; 27,500). *Exceptions are SAT scores, page numbers, years and temperatures. Very large figures can be expressed with a figure and a word *(352 million, 13 billion).*

**Fractions**

Spell out and hyphenate fractions that are less than one. *(Two-thirds of the class passed.)* Use figures for fractions greater than one *(2 3/16).*

**Inclusive Numbers**

Inclusive numbers that are represented by a beginning and ending number (e.g., page numbers, duration) can be joined by a dash *(1990-98) *or related by a pair of prepositions *(from 1996 through 1999). *Do not mix the two forms; in other words, *do not use* from 1996-99.

**Dates**

Use the cardinal number in dates: *The party is March 3* (not March 3rd), and do not use *on* if it can be avoided. Do not use a comma in dates that include only the month and year *(January 2002). *If giving the month, day and year, the year is set off with commas. *(September 11, 2001, is a day all of us will remember.)*

**Footnote Numbers**

Asterisks and superscripts follow punctuations marks (except dashes) in text and are placed outside the closing parenthesis.

**Money**

For even sums of money, delete the *.00* unless the figure is aligned in a table with other figures that include cents, or if the even figure is used in the same context with fractional amounts. *(The tickets were $15.00, $12.50, $10.00 and $7.50.)*

For even amounts of $1 million or more, use the dollar sign and *million *or *billion ($6.2 million, $3 billion).* For amounts under one dollar, use the word *cents;* do not use the dollar sign or decimal point *(35 cents)*.

**Phone Numbers**

Use figures. The form: 212-621-1500. For international numbers, use 011 (from the U.S.), the country code, the city code and the telephone number: 011-44-20-7535-1515. Use hyphens, not periods.

Form for toll-free numbers: 800-111-1000.

If extension numbers are needed, use a comma to separate the main number from the extension: 212-621-1500, ext. 2.